Lead tops the list of reproductive toxicity
caused by metals.
In spite of this extreme level of boron exposure the reproductive toxicity
biomarkers reported in that study did not indicate adverse effects on male reproduction.
They are known to disrupt hormone function which has been linked to breast cancer and reproductive toxicity
For example, the European Union has designated n-Propyl Bromide as a Substance of Very High Concern based on reproductive toxicity
. N-Propyl Bromide is a category of highly advanced non-chlorinated, non-flammable solvents majorly used as cleaning or degreasing solvent for removing contaminants such as grease, lubricants, and fluxes from metal machining parts.
triggers enormous demands for REACH (EC, 2006) compliance.
The Department of Health acknowledges that continuous direct exposure to these pollutants "may cause cancer, immune system disease, endocrine disruption, reproductive toxicity
, congenital malformation and developmental disorders, and many other diseases."
Associated hazards include: acute toxicity (acute lethality at high concentrations only), blood toxicity, immunotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, reproductive toxicity
, developmental toxicity, and neurotoxicity.
FA has genetic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and certain reproductive toxicity
.1-3 Our previous studies showed that acute exposure to FA induced expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutations in experimental mice.4 FA has been identified as class I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
The OECD reference guideline for reproductive and developmental toxicity, OECD TG 443 (Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity
Study), provides an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur in offspring as a result of pre-and post-natal chemical exposure as well as systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females (OECD 2011).
Similar results can be found in reproductive toxicity
studies with [beta]-lapachone, natural compound which has some pharmacological properties similar to usnic acid.