(17) reported a 90% surgical success rate, most with adjustable sutures, and success was defined as a residual deviation
of up to 15 PD.
In addition the induced paralysis prevents contracture of the antagonist muscle (which can result in a residual deviation
due to mechanical factors, even if there has been recovery from the nerve palsy).
According to our results, the mean residual deviation
was 3.8 PD after Knapp, 6.8 PD after IRR, and 6.5 PD after combined procedure.
It is possible to describe the stochastic component of the load by the expected deviation [zeta](t), which represents the conditional mathematical expectation of the stochastic component and normally distributed noncorrelated residual deviation (white noise) [xi](t) .
Large deviations of the load should be excluded, as they do not belong to the residual deviation. The following criterion is suitable:
2.7) and [[sigma].sub.[xi]--standard deviation of residual deviation. Possible large deviations belong to the load peak component [[pi].sub.t].
To adjust for general body size differences among populations and ecotypes, I first used analysis of covariance (head length as covariate) to derive for each individual the sum of its population's adjusted mean gnathopod size and that individual's residual deviation from the adjusted mean.
I attempted to circumvent this difficulty by using residual deviations in gnathopod size (calculated from linear regression of gnathopod size on body size) as data in my analyses (Wellborn, 1995b; see also Jones et al., 1992).
It is possible to describe the stochastic component of the load by expected deviation [zeta]( ), which represents the conditional mathematical expectation of the stochastic component and normally distributed noncorrelated residual deviation
(white noise) [xi]t.
[xi](t) is residual deviation of the load (white noise);
Residual deviation of the load [xi](t) describes a normally distributed noncorrelated stochastic process--white noise.
In a second step, the residual deviations
of each creatinine value from the fitted age-adjusted mean creatinine were examined for normality.