urine

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urine,

clear, amber-colored fluid formed by the kidneys that carries metabolic wastes out of the body (see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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). As the blood circulates it collects excretory products from the tissues and these substances are separated from the blood by the kidneys and eliminated chiefly in the urine. The urine is then stored in the bladderbladder, urinary,
muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine and contracts to expel it from the body. Urine enters the bladder from the kidneys through the ureters and is discharged from the body via the urethra. The bladder of the adult human can hold over a pint (0.
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 and passes out of the body via the urethraurethra
, canal in most mammals that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body; in the male it also serves as a genital duct. The urethra is about 1 1-2 in. long (3.8 cm) in women, terminating above the vaginal opening. In men the urethra is about 8 in.
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. The amount passed depends on fluid intake and other factors. Urine is 95% water, in which are dissolved urea, uric acid, creatinine, and other waste products. Normal urine also contains small amounts of substances ordinarily utilized by the body, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium; these substances are excreted by the kidneys when excessive amounts are present in the bloodstream. Analysis of the urine is important in detecting diseases of the urogenital organs, as well as disorders of other body systems.

Urine

An aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances, mostly waste products of metabolism. The kidneys maintain the internal milieu of the body by excreting these waste products and adjusting the loss of water and electrolytes to keep the body fluids relatively constant in amount and composition. The urine normally is clear and has a specific gravity of 1.017–1.020, depending upon the amount of fluid ingested, perspiration, and diet. The increase in specific gravity above that of water is due to the presence of dissolved solids, about 60% of which are organic substances such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonia; and 40% of which are inorganic substances such as sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphates, and sulfates. Its reaction is usually acid (pH 6) but this too varies with the diet. It usually has a faint yellow color due to a urochrome pigment, but the color varies depending upon the degree of concentration, and the ingestion of certain foods (for example, rhubarb) or cathartics. It usually has a characteristic aromatic odor, the cause of which is not known. See Kidney, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary system

Urine

 

a human and animal excretion that is produced by the kidneys. Water, salts, end products of metabolism, and foreign substances are excreted with the urine. Human urine is normally a transparent, yellow fluid; the color is dependent on the presence of several pigments, chiefly the products of the decomposition of hemoglobin. The specific gravity of urine is 1.010–1.025 g/cm3, and the pH ranges from 4.8 to 8.0. Intake of protein-rich foods results in acidic urine, while consumption of vegetables causes the urine to be weakly alkaline. About 96 percent of urine consists of water; 1.5 percent, of salts; and 2.5 percent, of such organic metabolic products as urea and uric acid. Urine and blood plasma contain the same salts—mainly NaCl, and also sulfates, phosphates, and carbonates of potassium, magnesium, and ammonium.

An adult excretes 1,200–1,600 ml of urine daily. The volume and composition of the urine are dependent on several factors, including the nature of an individual’s liquid intake, the type of food eaten, the temperature of the external environment, and stress factors. Urinalysis is a diagnostic method that reflects the condition of the kidneys, of the metabolism in other organs and tissues, and of the body as a whole.

REFERENCE

Gulevich, V. S. Analiz mochi. Leningrad, 1945.

M. IA. RATNER

urine

[′yu̇r·ən]
(physiology)
The fluid excreted by the kidneys.

urine

the pale yellow slightly acid fluid excreted by the kidneys, containing waste products removed from the blood. It is stored in the urinary bladder and discharged through the urethra
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There was significant positive correlation of duration of active phase of labour (r = 0.23, p = 0.005), duration of the second stage of labour (r = 0.306, p = 0.001), perineal pain score (r = 0.272, p = 0.001), and intrapartum blood loss (r = 0.202, p = 0.013) with residual urine volume.
However, due to a different measuring technique and possible error, we had to first evaluate the correlation of transabdominal ultrasound measured prostate and other noninvasive parameters (Qmax, prostate volume, mean voided urine, International Prostate Symptom Score, residual urine) with urodynamic nomograms that characterize obstruction (Schaefer nomogram, urethral resistance algorithm and bladder outlet obstruction index).
Prevalence of BPH signs in the Aral Sea Area (for 100 surveyed) Average Prostate volume urine flow Residual urine over 30ml rate volume Age, yr n (%) < 10ml/sec (%) (%) 50-59 263 35.0[+ or -]2.9 24.3[+ or -]2.6 7.6[+ or -]1.6 60-69 129 65.9[+ or -]4.2 55.8[+ or -]4.4 28.7[+ or -]4.0 70-79 83 71.1[+ or -]5.0 69.9[+ or -]5.0 49.4[+ or -]5.5 Over 80 14 85.7[+ or -]9.4 92.9[+ or -]6.9 92.9[+ or -]6.9 Total 489 50.7[+ or -]2.3 42.3[+ or -]2.2 22.7[+ or -]1.9
These two required electrical stimulation of the skin to initiate voiding, and, although residual urine volume was less, they still retained more than 100 milliliters.
-- Mean PVR (Post-void residual urine volume) decreased by 52.5 percent from a mean of 82.1 cc at baseline to 31.6 cc at Day 28 (]p<0.001) and to 39.0 cc at six month follow-up (p=3D.003).
Average postvoid residual urine measurements decreased from 282 mL to 38 mL.
Symptoms such as urgency, hesitancy, double voiding, increased frequency, a feeling of incomplete emptying, and postvoid residual urine of more than 100 mL are suggestive of failure-to-empty syndrome.
(2) The large residual urine volume results in bladder pressures that exceed bladder neck resistance capacity.
Once the catheter is removed, the suprapubic tube serves as a means to check the post void residual urine volume.
Women were excluded for the following reasons: symptoms of urinary tract infection, vaginitis, or intralabial irritation; skin sensitized by soaps, lotions, or feminine products; a urethral meatus inside the vaginal opening; a postvoid residual urine [is greater than] 200 cc; pelvic surgery within the last 5 months; inability to understand instructions for use; or inability to properly place barrier.
Your doctor will measure your bladder capacity and residual urine for evidence of poorly functioning bladder muscles.