The upshot of this is that the highly specific function form we assumed is not so restrictive and at variance with the data that it generates unreasonably inaccurate predictions of residual variance
. This is critical because, having dispensed with the atheoretical but conveniently automatic adjustment made to the variance-covariance matrix by SUR estimation, our alternative methodology is capable of adjusting the variance-covariance matrix based on the theory of interest.
Since a fixed effects model was considered, the standard errors of mean differences only depended on the residual variance
. The narrow inferences (environment-specific inference) about a genotype performance were obtained from genotype means in each environment.
 observed an increase in residual variance
around the prediction for lateral tooth withdrawal strength as SG increased.
Chi-square tests are provided for the level-2 residual variance
(e.g., variance in the U's; e.g., [[Tau].sub.00] and [[Tau].sub.11]) indicating whether the residual variance
significantly departs from zero.
The correct values of sampling error variance, residual variance
, and percentage of unexplained variance are presented in Table 1 of the present article.
Collins and Dent (1984) find merit in the technique, especially when encountering significant cross-correlations and shifts in residual variance
. On the other hand, Malatesta (1986, p.
In the threshold model the underlying scale assumes normal distribution represented as: U|[theta]~N(W[theta], I [[sigma].sup.2.sub.e]); in which U is a vector of scale base of origin r; [theta] = (b, a) is the location vector of order parameters s with b (fixed effects in frequentist analysis) and order s with a (random genetic addictive direct effect); W is a matrix incidence of order r by s; I is an identity matrix of order r by r; and [[sigma].sup.2.sub.e] is the residual variance
It is expected that this experimental design minimizes the effect of row productive variability on residual variance
; however, if there is variability among columns arranged in the perpendicular direction of the rows, there may be variability within the block.
Where s2a s2m s2c and s2e were direct additive genetic variance maternal additive genetic variance maternal permanent environmental variance and residual variance
For every country, the variance ratio, defined as the residual variance
of the nonlinear model over the residual variance
of the best linear autoregression selected with AIC, lies in the interval (0.71, 0.76).
These adjusted means, minus the checks, were then combined with the 2000 data in an across-years analysis to obtain estimates of the year variance ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.Y]), the genetic variance among [S.sub.1] families ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.F]), the family x year interaction variance ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.FY]), and the residual variance
([[sigma].sup.2.sub.e]) by the likelihood statistical methods of PROC MIXED (Littell et al., 1996).
The residual variance
at the individual level decreased and did not change at the MCO level when child characteristics were added (Table 4).