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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
Bandy W.D., Lovelace-Chandler V., McKitrick-Brandy B., 1990, Adaptation of skeletal muscle to resistance training. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 12, 248-255.
Future studies with larger and more heterogeneous sample of middle-aged to older healthy adults are needed to confirm the effectiveness of elastic resistance training to this group of subjects, mainly in outcomes not investigated yet.
Participants underwent 8 weeks of resistance training (3 weekly sessions with a 48-hour interval), except for CG members.
Doing resistance training at least twice a week can help us maintain strength and stave off these risks," he says.
(20) showed a significant increase in mTOR after 15 min of resistance training and 2 hrs of rest without Akt activation, which suggests an independent exercise pathway to promote hypertrophy.
On the other hand, a work-place intervention using light resistance training, at a low intensity of 30% of 1RM, failed to reduce anxiety outcomes.
Resistance training was assessed by three survey items addressing overall experience (i.e., years resistance training, have never resistance trained), resistance training frequency and typical training session duration.
There are many concerns about resistance training in children and adolescents.
A good resistance training program could have prevented it.
Therefore, the manipulation of resistance training methodological variables (i.e., number of exercises per session, repetitions per set, or sets per exercise) is another issue that has received considerable research attention.
Thus, we hypothesized that resistance training may improve mucosal immunity response in sedentary adults with DS.
of Connecticut) present this compilation of evidence on the benefits of resistance training for a variety of chronic ailments.

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