Restitution


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restitution

1. Law the act of compensating for loss or injury by reverting as far as possible to the position before such injury occurred
2. the return of an object or system to its original state, esp a restoration of shape after elastic deformation
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Restitution

 

in biology, the restoration of the entire organism or individual organs, tissues, or cells after injury. Some scientists believe that regeneration and reparation are varieties of restitution, while others believe that restitution is the regeneration of the entire organism from a small part of that organism.

In nemertines of the genus Lineus, for example, a whole worm can develop from a preoral section. An entire hydra can form from a fragment excised from the middle of a hydra; this fragment can constitute 1/200 of the animal’s body volume. In plants a restored formation may differ from other parts of the organism, as well as from the part removed. When part of a leaf is detached, for example, either a new blade develops, or an infundibular leaf with a petiole develops.

In medicine, restitution is complete regeneration, that is, replacement of a defect with equivalent tissue, while substitution is partial regeneration.


Restitution

 

(1) In civil law, the return by parties of anything received by them under a transaction if the transaction is acknowledged to be invalid.

In Soviet civil law the general rule is bilateral restitution: if a transaction is acknowledged to be invalid or does not comply with legal requirements (for example, if it is made by a person declared to be incapable), each of the parties is obliged to return everything received to the other party or to repay its value in money. If the transaction was carried out under the influence of fraud or threats, only the culpable party returns everything received and pays the expenses incurred; that which the victim receives from the culpable party is taken as state income (unilateral restitution).

(2) In international law, the return of property illegally seized and removed by a country from another country with which it is at war. International legal instruments adopted during and after World War II provided for the return, as restitution, of the many valuables that had been seized and illegally removed by fascist German forces and their allies from temporarily occupied territory.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In a statement announcing the decision, the Polish Foreign Ministry announced that "Poland decided to cancel the visit of Israeli officials after the Israeli side made last-minute changes in the composition of the delegation suggesting that the talks would primarily focus on the issues related to property restitution."
In their complaint, the PIO said that the Ledesma spouses argued that under RA 7202, the BSP and the PCGG should compensate them for their losses and refund the excess payment from the Sugar Restitution Fund.
"It is very important that the commission ordered the restitution of two properties.
To resolve the conflict, the court held that probationers still can accrue earned compliance credits, or ECCs, but they can't apply them against the term of probation until the restitution is paid.
At the subsequent restitution hearing, appellant testified that she left the keys in the unlocked vehicle when she abandoned it.
Such expenses will be excluded from any mandatory restitution order.
However, it is regrettable that the decision was taken that it "is not part of the business of the Benin Dialogue Group" to concern itself with "the eventual return of works of art removed from the Royal Court of Benin." This is a repudiation of one of the initial objectives of the Group when the first meeting in 2010 held in Vienna convened under the banner: 'New Cultures of Collaboration: Sharing of Collections and Quests for Restitution: the Benin Case'.
"Now, Croman tenants will finally get the restitution and protections they deserve as a result of this unprecedented settlement--the largest-ever with an individual landlord.
"The MIA's efforts to root out fraud have resulted in fines, penalties and restitution in excess of $2 million over the past several years," said Maryland Insurance Commissioner Al Redmer Jr.
Where restitution called "the sum necessary to compensate the victim for out-of-pocket losses," People v.