Restitution

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restitution

1. Law the act of compensating for loss or injury by reverting as far as possible to the position before such injury occurred
2. the return of an object or system to its original state, esp a restoration of shape after elastic deformation
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Restitution

 

in biology, the restoration of the entire organism or individual organs, tissues, or cells after injury. Some scientists believe that regeneration and reparation are varieties of restitution, while others believe that restitution is the regeneration of the entire organism from a small part of that organism.

In nemertines of the genus Lineus, for example, a whole worm can develop from a preoral section. An entire hydra can form from a fragment excised from the middle of a hydra; this fragment can constitute 1/200 of the animal’s body volume. In plants a restored formation may differ from other parts of the organism, as well as from the part removed. When part of a leaf is detached, for example, either a new blade develops, or an infundibular leaf with a petiole develops.

In medicine, restitution is complete regeneration, that is, replacement of a defect with equivalent tissue, while substitution is partial regeneration.


Restitution

 

(1) In civil law, the return by parties of anything received by them under a transaction if the transaction is acknowledged to be invalid.

In Soviet civil law the general rule is bilateral restitution: if a transaction is acknowledged to be invalid or does not comply with legal requirements (for example, if it is made by a person declared to be incapable), each of the parties is obliged to return everything received to the other party or to repay its value in money. If the transaction was carried out under the influence of fraud or threats, only the culpable party returns everything received and pays the expenses incurred; that which the victim receives from the culpable party is taken as state income (unilateral restitution).

(2) In international law, the return of property illegally seized and removed by a country from another country with which it is at war. International legal instruments adopted during and after World War II provided for the return, as restitution, of the many valuables that had been seized and illegally removed by fascist German forces and their allies from temporarily occupied territory.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interpreters who deny that Plato views all pleasure as restitutive, typically concede that this is how he understands most bodily pleasures, but maintain that anticipatory pleasures and the pure pleasures of perception cannot be subsumed under this model.
to read Nightwood than the nostalgic and restitutive approaches offered
Finally, successful "reconstruction" that synthesizes the traumatic experience into an individual's personality typically has six components: education, identifying feelings, "deconditioning" traumatic memories and responses, restructuring "traumatic personal schemes," re-establishing social connections, and accumulating "restitutive emotional experiences" (3).
I think the additional use of force to secure restitution is permitted, since restitutive force counts as an extension of defensive force.
(14) In that case, there may be restitutive justice arguments for including Kirkuk as part of the Kurdish region.
Although I initially sought interviews with all Vietnamese-Caledonian community members, over time I redesigned my research to focus specifically on women, as a restitutive project that placed Vietnamese women into broader New Caledonian social narratives.
Proceeding from a clear and concise analysis of repetitive or restitutive wieder, again, igyen, and dabei, Fabricius-Hansen (this issue) compares translations between English, German, and Norwegian regarding the explicit occurrence of these connectors, their replacement by other linguistic elements, and their disappearance.
(37) This call, in my opinion, compares to Zehr's opinion that the righting of structural wrong, injustices or oppression and/or reconciliation requires both restorative, restitutive and redistributive, or socio-economic justice.
These lead in turn to interventions in the form of negative sanctions which, no matter how graduated in intensity, at some level express disapproval and exact a restitutive vengeance.
Nozick focuses on the right of the aspiring minimal state to suppress unreliable competitors--that is, competitors whose defensive, restitutive, or retributive activities pose an unacceptable risk of violating the rights of the aspiring minimal state's clients.