RA interacts with nuclear receptors, such as the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid receptor
X (RXR), to regulate the transcription of several target genes [10, 29] by binding the retinoic acid-responsive elements (RAREs) in DNA .
Pharmacological doses of some synthetic retinoids can modulate both the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and retinoid receptor
"This is the first line of evidence for the presence of a retinoid receptor
in this particular tissue being important in the pattern of organization being laid down during early regeneration," Hopkins says.
Alitretinoin is the only retinoid that is known to act on both types of retinoid receptor
, and for this reason it is sometimes described as a (retinoid) panagonist.
binding sites have been identified in the promoter region for MMP-21 expression, thus retinoic acid upregulates MMP21 mRNA in monocytic U937 cells  and the enzyme has been found in cancer cells.
In APL about 90% of affected individuals have a reciprocal chromosome 15;17 translocation in which the t(15;17) breakpoint occurs near the retinoid receptor
RAR [alpha] gene (Figure 1).
The second chapter of this volume is entitled: 'Animal models for retinoid receptor
research: Implications for epidermal homeostasis, skin barrier function, wound healing, and atopic dermatitis', by N.
The most significant finding in recent years, I think, is the discovery that the retinoid receptor
called 'RXR', or the rexinoid receptor, which binds the derivative 9-cis-retinoic acid and has multiple functions acting in concert (as a heterodimer) with a whole range of other hormone-type receptors in the cell.
There are two classes of retinoid receptor
, the RAR or retinoic acid receptor, which binds all-transretinoic acid, and RXR, or the so-called orphan receptor whose ligand is believed to be 9-cis-retinoic acid.
RXR: the so-called 'orphan retinoid receptor
' (because its ligand was previously unidentified).
Pattern of retinoid- induced teratogenic effects: Possible relationship with relative selectivity for nuclear retinoid receptors
RARa, RARb, and RARg.