1997; Semal et al., 1996), as well as from memory processes such as retroactive interference
and feature overwriting (Mercer & McKeown, 2010a, 2010b).
Table 1 lists the absolute number of children and the percentages of patients classified as medium or inferior level for the RAVLT regarding the following items: immediate memory (A1), learning (sum of A1 to A4), learning rate (A4-A1), retroactive interference
(A5/ A4), long-term memory (A6), and recognition memory.
For example, stimulus salience is said to enhance encoding, whereas retroactive interference
is said to produce a retrieval deficit.
The first one is the learning of new information that may compete with the information originally learned (i.e., retroactive interference
; e.g., Garcia-Gutierrez & Rosas, 2003d; Pavlov, 1927).
Whether retroactive interference
effects resulting from imaginary practice and physical practice are similar can be determined by examining two questions: (a) do imaginary and physical practice conditions produce comparable biasing effects on a retention test?
As with proactive and retroactive interference
, coactive interference is also much influenced by the amount of material to which the learner is exposed and by the degree to which it has already been learned.
also appears a rather poor fit because of its history of use in paired-associate learning.
between cues trained apart has been regarded as an effect that occurs because the target and interfering associations share a common outcome.
They found that a retention interval, a context change, or the combination of these two factors after interference training led to retrieval of the original relationship between the medicine and side effect 1, attenuating retroactive interference
. This study used a situation akin to Pavlovian conditioning where the dependent variable was a judgment emitted by participants.
Two experiments explored retroactive interference
in human predictive learning.