Zhao (1997), looking at proactive and retroactive interferences
in recalling commercials that appeared during a Super Bowl football game, found that subjects recalled the first commercial, in a string of commercials, better than the last commercial.
For example, stimulus salience is said to enhance encoding, whereas retroactive interference is said to produce a retrieval deficit.
Retroactive interference effects of surprising reward omission on serial spatial memory.
Pavlov, 1927), and a context change between the retroactive interference treatment and testing (i.
Retrieval theory assumes that there are two main sources of forgetting: Retroactive interference, and context change.
Whether retroactive interference effects resulting from imaginary practice and physical practice are similar can be determined by examining two questions: (a) do imaginary and physical practice conditions produce comparable biasing effects on a retention test?
A significant group effect found for the retention/reacquisition CE data is in accordance with other retroactive interference studies.
As with proactive and retroactive interference
, coactive interference is also much influenced by the amount of material to which the learner is exposed and by the degree to which it has already been learned.
also appears a rather poor fit because of its history of use in paired-associate learning.
Matute and Pineno's demonstration of retroactive interference
between cues trained apart was not novel, but it can be regarded as an application to predictive learning of the well-known interference effects observed in the verbal learning tradition (e.
As noted in the introduction, the decrease on retroactive interference
with the retention interval has been shown in different interference paradigms within animal classical and instrumental conditioning (e.
techniques have shown to be an important tool to explore different aspects of memory in human and nonhuman animals (e.