return stroke


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Related to return stroke: lightning

return stroke

[ri′tərn ‚strōk]
(geophysics)
References in periodicals archive ?
The return stroke peak current Ip represents the neutralization of the deposited CG leader charge and is given by Ip = [lambda][upsilon], where [upsilon] is the return stroke speed.
It makes a bit of a squeak on the return stroke, but that's not noticeable when firing the Ethos.
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for evaluation of lightning return stroke models' parameters (return stroke speed, channel height, and the constant of exponential current attenuation factor), based on electromagnetic theory relations and measured magnetic flux density in [10], whereas remote electric fields are used for estimation of lightning current waveforms and return stroke velocity profiles in [11, 12].
In the situation of current strength changing from 0 ~ 4 A ~ 0, and when the input current is 1.4 A, the difference of output displacement between return stroke and lift stroke reaches the maximum, and max [absolute value of [y.sub.2i] - [y.sub.1i]] = 2.15 [micro]m, max([y.sub.1]) = 158.4 [micro]m, and calculated by Eq.
The forward stroke of cam is uniform velocity and return stroke motion of the cam profile can be modified by acceleration and retardation.
Other topics include the mechanism of the lightning flash, tower initiated lighting discharges, return stroke speed models, and principles of protection against lightning.
Because of this, the hydraulically powered machines are usually setup so that the stroke of the piston which drives the cut is slower than the return stroke. Since no steel is being cut away during the cutter box's return, it is beneficial to accomplish the return stroke with all due haste.
During the rapid downstroke of the antennule flick of a variety of malacostracans, the aesthetascs operate at Re's of approximately 1 ; and during the slower return stroke, the aesthetascs operate at Re's of about 0.1 (stomatopod Gonodactylus mutatus: Mead et al., 1999; spiny lobsters of various species: Goldman and Koehl, 2001; Goldman and Patek, 2002; brachyuran crab Hemigrapsis oregonensis: Waldrop, 2013).
With the circuit completed, the electrical current of a lightning bolt flows up the channel of the combined negative step lead and positive streamer into the cloud resulting in return stroke back down.
The aim of this study is to examine whether different constraints of returning against a ball machine compared to a real server in tennis affect timing of the return stroke. We hypothesize that movement initiation will be shorter in a group of players using a ball machine.
where [[mu].sub.0] is the permeability of free space, [beta] is the ratio of the return stroke speed to c (the speed of light in free space), t is the time t = 0, return stroke inception), [lambda] = [beta]ct-h , [[lambda].sub.0] = [beta]c[t.sub.0]-h, [delta] = d/[gamma], [t.sub.0] = [r.sub.0]/c, h is the line conductor height above ground, d is the horizontal distance between the lightning channel and the line conductor, [gamma] = 1/[square root of (1 - [[beta].sup.2])], [r.sub.0] = [square root of ([d.sup.2] + [h.sup.2])], and u(*) is the Heaviside function.
Cooray, "Evaluation of lightning return stroke current using measured electromagnetic fields," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol.