reverse transcriptase

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Related to reverse transcriptase: reverse transcription, Reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Reverse transcriptase

Any of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases present in particles of retroviruses which are able to carry out DNA synthesis using an RNA template. This reaction is called reverse transcription since it is the opposite of the usual transcription reaction, which involves RNA synthesis using a DNA template. See Retrovirus

The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA in retrovirus replication was proposed in 1964 by H. M. Temin in the DNA provirus hypothesis for the replication of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus which causes tumors in chickens and transformation of cells in culture, and reverse transcriptase has since been purified from virions of many retroviruses. The avian, murine, and human retrovirus DNA polymerases have been extensively studied.

Studies indicate that reverse transcriptase is widely distributed in living organisms and that all reverse transcriptases are evolutionarily related. For example, the organization of the nucleotide sequence of integrated retroviral DNA has a remarkable resemblance to the structure of bacterial transposable elements, in particular, transposons.

Reverse transcriptase genes are present in the eukaryotic organisms in retrotransposons and in retroposons or long interspersed (LINE) elements. Both of these types of elements can transpose in cells. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Transposons

reverse transcriptase

[ri′vərs tran′skrip‚tās]
A polymerase that mediates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by using a ribonucleic acid template.
References in periodicals archive ?
The two main biochemical mechanisms leading to NRTI (nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor) resistance are:
Four-hundred and forty-seven HIV-1 infected patients have received combination therapy with Emtriva and Viread with either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (Study 934) or protease inhibitor for 48 weeks in clinical studies.
Merck also intends to commence with a Phase II study of MK-1439, an investigational next generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
SPD754 has been shown to selectively inhibit the HIV replication enzyme reverse transcriptase and has successfully completed a Phase IIa trial.
Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nukes): These medications interfere with viral reverse transcriptase by acting as "fake building blocks" that disrupt the creation of proviral DNA needed to take over the infected cell to build new viruses (see #2 in diagram).
High AST also was predictive of severe hepatotoxicity in the first 6 months of therapy among patients using a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (OR 2.
The most commonly used therapies target 2 viral enzymes, reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR), and a great deal of research is being done on improving dosing, overcoming problems of viral resistance, reducing toxicities, etc.
As a result, PA-457 exhibits potent activity against HIV strains resistant to current therapies, including inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and viral protease.
This drug was chemically designed by leading experts, mostly in Belgium, to reduce viral resistance--partly by making a flexible molecule that can fit into the "active pocket" of HIV's reverse transcriptase enzyme in different ways, even when the shape of that pocket changes due to viral mutations that would defeat other drugs.
cDNA: abbreviation for "complementary DNA," which matches a given RNA that serves as a template for synthesis of the DNA in the presence of reverse transcriptase.
Currently approved reverse transcriptase inhibitors include nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors, but tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which has slightly different chemical properties.
and Promega Corporation, have settled pending litigation for their infringement of Invitrogen's patents which cover, among other things, modified reverse transcriptase enzymes having reduced levels of RNase H activity.

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