reverse transcriptase

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Related to reverse transcriptase: reverse transcription, Reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Reverse transcriptase

Any of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases present in particles of retroviruses which are able to carry out DNA synthesis using an RNA template. This reaction is called reverse transcription since it is the opposite of the usual transcription reaction, which involves RNA synthesis using a DNA template. See Retrovirus

The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA in retrovirus replication was proposed in 1964 by H. M. Temin in the DNA provirus hypothesis for the replication of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus which causes tumors in chickens and transformation of cells in culture, and reverse transcriptase has since been purified from virions of many retroviruses. The avian, murine, and human retrovirus DNA polymerases have been extensively studied.

Studies indicate that reverse transcriptase is widely distributed in living organisms and that all reverse transcriptases are evolutionarily related. For example, the organization of the nucleotide sequence of integrated retroviral DNA has a remarkable resemblance to the structure of bacterial transposable elements, in particular, transposons.

Reverse transcriptase genes are present in the eukaryotic organisms in retrotransposons and in retroposons or long interspersed (LINE) elements. Both of these types of elements can transpose in cells. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Transposons

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

reverse transcriptase

[ri′vərs tran′skrip‚tās]
A polymerase that mediates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by using a ribonucleic acid template.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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This high value also demonstrates that the SVM technique is adequate to produce an effective QSAR model for modeling and predicting the inhibitory activity of the HEPT derivatives against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The influence of the three descriptors on the inhibitory activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase can be interpreted chemically.
Real-time PCR quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in colorectal cancer.
The two main biochemical mechanisms leading to NRTI (nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor) resistance are:
To mimic inhibition of the reverse transcriptase step, we used decreasing concentrations of reverse transcriptase to assay the same amount of RNA (2.5 [micro]L of RSV RNA and 2.5 [micro]L of the RICO).
The other type of reverse transcriptase inhibitor is the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI).
Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Generic Name Initials Trade Name Manufacturer Didanosine (1990) ddl Videx Bristol-Myers Squibb Lamivudine (1995) 3TC Epivir Glaxo Wellcome Stavudine (1994) d4T Zerit Bristol-Myers Squibb Zalcitabine (1992) ddC HIVID Hoffmann-LaRoche Zidovudine (1987) AZT/ZDV Retrovir Glaxo Wellcome Table 2.
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The product combines the novel HIV integrase inhibitor elvitegravir with a novel "boosting" agent, cobicistat, and Gilead's dual nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor regimen Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir).
AZT works by inhibiting an enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which HIV needs to produce DNA from RNA, and thus replicate itself.
A single dose of tenofovir and emtricitabine at delivery reduced resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors at 6 weeks after delivery by half.
A reverse transcriptase enzyme used in gene expression analysis, PrimeScript can synthesize cDNA in an efficient fashion.

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