They believe in a revolution from above
, just as Mustafa Kemal AtatE-rk achieved, by relying on a vanguard bureaucratic cadre.
What the radicals did thereafter was to launch a socialist revolution from above
, which began in 1953 with a rural class struggle.
A second potential obstacle for Francis is that he, like his predecessors, is promoting a revolution from above
The revolution from above
that took place in early July clearly criminalised the Muslim Brotherhood as an entity and an orientation, trying to deny that is a very desperate attempt to gain the best of both worlds, to trample all over the law in the name of political necessity then hang on to the legal framework of things.
The eminent sociologist from Delhi's Jawaharlal Nehru University and author of "The Revolution From Above
-- India's Future and Citizen Elite" argues that Sonia's personal charisma and gravitas may still rescue the Congress.
Here there is a real fear that the neoliberal subject is being constructed by a revolution from above
rather than below, and public spaces where democracy can be experienced in any meaningful way are being closing down.
As Tucker puts it: "The revolution from above
was a state-initiated, state-directed, and stateenforced process .
Garcelon places the blame firmly on Yeltsin's shoulders, in that he enacted democracy as a revolution from above
and showed no ability to engage peripheral, minor political groups or (lower still) grass-roots organizations; the author monitors this sad failure primarily through the example of DemRossiia.
Graham wanted to launch a genetic revolution from above
, but parents just wanted the freedom to choose.
Brandenburg-Prussia illustrates the disciplinary revolution from above
They did not want to engage in "vanguardism," or attempt to direct the revolution from above
See Saul Dubow, "Colonial Nationalism, The Milner Kindergarten and the rise of 'South Africanism', 1902-10," History Workshop (Spring 1997): 53-86; see also George Fredrickson, White Supremacy: A Comparative Study In American and South African History, xx; Marks and Trapido, "Lord Milner and the South African State," 50-81; Charles van Onselen, "The world the mine owners made: social themes in the economic transformation of the Witwatersrand," in Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand, 1886-1914 volume one (London, 1982), 1-44; see also Jeremy Krikler, Revolution From Above
, Rebellion From Below (Oxford, 1992).