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americana, Rhamnus cathartica (European buckthorn) and Lonicera morrowii (Asian fly honeysuckle) were common in these plots.
We offered seed predators seeds of the following five species: Rhamnus cathartica (mean [[+ or -] SD] mass of single seed 0.
Seeds of other species were only infrequently (Lonicera morrowii, 1/27 trials; Rhamnus cathartica, 5/27 trials; Rosa multiflora, 3/27 trials) or never exhausted during trials.
McCay and McCay (in press) found that predation of Rhamnus cathartica seeds by granivorous rodents was more intense in maple-beech forests than old fields and plantations at these same study sites.
The same has been shown for Rhamnus cathartica (European buckthorn) in Midwestern forests (Heneghan et al.