rhamnus cathartica

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Related to rhamnus cathartica: Rhamnus frangula, Common buckthorn
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A large shrub whose bark is very strong medicinally and used for killing several species of fungus, candida, staphylococcus, herpes and tumors. Bark must be at least two years old or it’s too strong. Careful! Do not confuse with the very toxic cherry laurel (Prunus caroliniana) which also has blue-black fruit, but the leaves are simpler cherry leaves.
References in periodicals archive ?
americana, Rhamnus cathartica (European buckthorn) and Lonicera morrowii (Asian fly honeysuckle) were common in these plots.
We offered seed predators seeds of the following five species: Rhamnus cathartica (mean [[+ or -] SD] mass of single seed 0.
Seeds of other species were only infrequently (Lonicera morrowii, 1/27 trials; Rhamnus cathartica, 5/27 trials; Rosa multiflora, 3/27 trials) or never exhausted during trials.
McCay and McCay (in press) found that predation of Rhamnus cathartica seeds by granivorous rodents was more intense in maple-beech forests than old fields and plantations at these same study sites.
The same has been shown for Rhamnus cathartica (European buckthorn) in Midwestern forests (Heneghan et al.