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see oratoryoratory,
the art of swaying an audience by eloquent speech. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was included under the term rhetoric, which meant the art of composing as well as delivering a speech.
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the study of oratory and prose in general. Rhetoric as an art originated in Greece in the fifth century B.C. and was reduced to a system in the third and second centuries B.C. Roman oratory dates from the first century B.C. The greatest theoreticians of ancient rhetoric were Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian.

Classic rhetoric was divided into five parts: invention, arrangement, verbal expression, memorization, and delivery. Invention is the systematization of the contents and proofs of a speech. Arrangement is the division of a speech into the introduction exposition, elaboration—proofs to support one’s own point of view and refutations of the arguments of one’s opponent—and conclusion. Verbal expression is the choice and combination of words, figures of speech, and rhetorical devices and—depending on the use of these elements—the choice of the simple, middle, or high style of speech.

Classical rhetoric, which was oriented primarily toward legal and ceremonial speeches, was studied in the Middle Ages mainly for the purpose of writing letters and sermons. During the Renaissance and the period of classicism, classical rhetoric was brought to bear on all types of prose. In Russia, the classical treatment of this “pervasive” rhetoric was given by M. V. Lomonosov in A Short Handbook on Eloquence (1748). Rhetoric was part of an education in the humanities until the 19th century, when its main component—verbal expression—merged with stylistics as part of the theory of literature and the remaining components lost their practical significance. The word “rhetoric” itself has taken on the offensive connotation of pompous and empty speech.


Cicero. Tri traktata ob oratorskom iskusstve. Moscow, 1972.
Antichnye teorii iazyka i stilia. Edited by O. Freidenberg. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, vols. 1-2. Munich, 1960.
Martin, J. Antike Rhetorik. Munich, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding Pissarro, Walcott asks rhetorically, "isn't his the old trial/of love faced with necessity, the same crisis every island artist .
The FDA has shunted aside all that, though, under the rhetorically omnipresent banner of "The Children.
By creating a theoretically and rhetorically charged account of the vibrator, Maines challenges doctors, individuals, and our society to find new and more satisfying types of intercourse that will provide more and better orgasms for women.
If the discourse of 1960s theory (particularly in Tel Quel, which Guerlac discusses in detail) rhetorically pronounced an epistemic break, leaping over the recent past (a move that amounts to a deliberate ignoring of modernism) to appeal to discourses of rupture situated sometime between the middle to the end of the nineteenth century, and creates its own restricted canon in this century (Bataille, Artaud), Guerlac's book is a further inventive rereading of history, establishing an alternative history, centred this time on early writers of this century, such as Bergson and Valery.
Of, relating to, or resembling a school of English writers of pretentious, affected, rhetorically ornate poetry in the late 18th century.
The good news is this approach seems to be holding its ground, at least rhetorically, in the Clinton Administration review process.
Though poetically and rhetorically inferior to much of his predecessors ' work, Hardy's plays achieved an enormous popularity in their time and performed the invaluable service of bridging the gap between the French drama of the Middle Ages and Renaissance and that of the 17th century.
He rhetorically asked why PML-N was being subjected to alleged injustice.
NOWSHERA -- Former president Asif Ali Zardari has rhetorically questioned the people of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on Wednesday how could chief minister Pervaiz Khattak make a 'new Pakistan' when he could not build a 'new Nowshera', his hometown.
Zardari criticised Nawaz Sharif by rhetorically questioning why did he leave the Prime Minister House if he did not know the reason behind his ousting.
From his soapbox perch producing the daily "Cafferty Files" segments on Cable News Network's The Situation Room, the author has carved out a niche for himself as a populist curmudgeon willing to rhetorically challenge the corrupt and the powerful.