Clinicopathologic recognition of rhinoscleroma
in nonendemic regions, such as North America and Europe, can be problematic because the reported incidence in these areas is extremely low.
(18) both the cases of rhinoscleroma
diagnosed clinically showed histopathological confirmation.
may demonstrate nodular deformity of the tracheal mucosa or severe, circumferential thickening of the walls of the trachea and central bronchi resulting in marked luminal narrowing (Figure 10).
and ozena infections are frequently misdiagnosed as a common cold and sinusitis on the initial phases, due to the vague signs and symptoms.
In the nasolabial region, for example, possible diagnoses which should be considered are rhinoscleroma
and medio-facial granuloma, among others .
Miscellaneous Rhinitis Syndromes Granulomatous Conditions: rhinoscleroma
, Wegener's granulomatosis, Diseases polymorphic reticulosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis.
(Table 3) Inflammatory/infective lesions included lichen planus in 6 cases, pemphigus vulgaris in 1, bullous pemphigoid in 1, rhinoscleroma
in 1, tuberculosis 2, leprosy in 1, actinomycosis in 2, rhinosporidiosis in 2, neutrophilic dermatosis in 1, and chronic inflammation in 13 cases.
.--Rhinoscleroma is a chronic upper respiratory tract infection caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a gram-negative bacterium endemic to Central America, Egypt, Africa, India, and Indonesia and rarely seen in the United States.
pneumoniae rhinoescleromatis is the etiological agent of rhinoscleroma
or scleroma infection which is characterized by a granulomatous and chronic process of insidious evolution that affects the mucosa from the upper respiratory tract and might lead to bone invasion and airway obstruction.
The differential diagnosis of nasal tuberculosis includes other granulomatous diseases such as Wegener's granulomatosis, syphilis, rhinoscleroma
, rhinosporidiosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis.
INTRODUCTION: The name rhinoscleroma
was first used by Von Hebra & Kaposi.
Molecular Genetics.--Although rhinoscleroma
is clearly due to a bacterial infection, there have been reports of potential genetic predisposition with familial cases and the potential that the inflammatory reaction generated toward the organism may be related to a defect in immune regulation.