The diagnosis may rely solely on a given patient's history and a physical examination, including nasal endoscopy, since it is not always possible to address the posterior extent of a rhinolith by anterior rhinoscopy
and endoscopic examination of the left side of nose indicated a prominent swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose without polypoid changes.
There is no mention of posterior rhinoscopy
or other methods of examination in the abstract of medical records.
Linder-Aronson16 found a high level of correla-tion between the results of posterior rhinoscopy
and radiographic cephalometrics in the assessment of ad-enoid size and nasopharyngeal airway.
The nasal examination includes an anterior rhinoscopy
using a speculum with the patient seated with the head slightly back.
can be performed using a light or otoscope to inspect the anterior nasal cavity.
The great variation in the frequency of the VNO in different studies is thought to be related to the accuracy of the evaluation method (anterior rhinoscopy
versus nasofibrolaryngoscopy) and to the frequent presence of irregularities in the mucosa of this region, which would mask the diagnosis of the presence of VNO (Zbar et al.
Because studies in Korea have shown that postnasal drip is the most frequent cause of chronic cough, we chose rhinoscopy
as the first diagnostic investigation.
can usually identify signs that are consistent with inflammation in CRS, such as purulent drainage, polyps, and polypoid changes.
1,20] Anterior rhinoscopy
was done in all the cases to detect and remove these foreign bodies.
Patients who had a nasal septum deformity revealed by anterior rhinoscopy
or endoscopic nasal examination were eligible for the study.