Rhinovirus

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Related to rhinoviruses: Adenoviruses, coronaviruses

Rhinovirus

A genus of the family Picornaviridae. Members of the human rhinovirus group include at least 113 antigenically distinct types. Like the enteroviruses, the rhinoviruses are small (17–30 nanometers), contain ribonucleic acid (RNA), and are not inactivated by ether. Unlike the enteroviruses, they are isolated from the nose and throat rather than from the enteric tract, and are unstable if kept under acid conditions (pH 3–5) for 1–3 h. Rhinoviruses have been recovered chiefly from adults with colds and only rarely from patients with more severe respiratory diseases. See Common cold

In a single community, different rhinovirus types predominate during different seasons and during different outbreaks in a single season, but more than one type may be present at the same time.

Although efforts have been made to develop vaccines, none is available. Problems that hinder development of a useful rhinovirus vaccine include the short duration of natural immunity even to the specific infecting type, the large number of different antigenic types of rhinovirus, and the variation of types present in a community from one year to the next. See Animal virus, Picornaviridae, Virus classification

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Rhinovirus

 

one of a group of small RNA viruses of the picornavirus family. Rhinoviruses reproduce in the cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, causing an inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract. There are many different rhinoviral serotypes, which makes it difficult to control outbreaks of acute respiratory diseases.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

rhinovirus

[¦rīn·ə′vī·rəs]
(virology)
A subgroup of the picornavirus group including small, ribonucleic acid-containing forms which are not inactivated by ether.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Standard molecular diagnostics for rhinoviruses might have failed to detect rhinovirus C, which is genetically divergent from rhinoviruses A and B (28).
Newly identified human rhinoviruses: Molecular methods heat up the cold viruses.
Shapiro et al., "Rhinoviruses are a major cause of wheezing and hospitalization in children less than 2 years of age," Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.
What damage can rhinoviruses do, if any, in the upper respiratory tract?
Previous studies of rhinovirus capsid-binding compounds tested against serotype human rhinoviruses revealed the existence of groups A and B, based on differential susceptibility to antiviral compounds (Andries et al., 1991).
Rhinoviruses appeared in 52% of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URIs), 41% of lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRIs), and 45% of LRIs with wheezing.
They will home in on a group of RNA viruses called picornoviruses, and particularly a subgroup called rhinoviruses. (More than 200 different viruses cause common colds.)
The common cold, any of over 100 rhinoviruses, is an infection of the upper respiratory tract (URTI).
Coronaviruses are thought to be the second most common cause of cold symptoms after rhinoviruses. Normally in humans corona viruses produce mild symptoms such as sore throats and coughs.
In their unique location at the interface between the air space and the submucosal regions, the epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract serve as common targets for airborne pollutants and several viral pathogens, including the rhinoviruses (7-9).
Colds caused by picornaviruses, specifically rhinoviruses, usually account for about 80% of colds during those months.
But Prof Eccles said that over a year rhinoviruses only accounted for between 30pc and 50pc of colds.