ribose


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

ribose

(rī`bōs), monosaccharide carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
..... Click the link for more information.
 of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
..... Click the link for more information.
), free nucleotidesnucleotide
, organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of either a purine or a pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and various coenzymescoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
..... Click the link for more information.
. Its close relative, deoxyribose, is a constituent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); ribose has one more oxygen atom in its molecule than deoxyribose. Some of the best procedures for the laboratory preparation of ribose involve the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acid.

Ribose

A water-soluble pentose, also known as d -ribose (see first structural formula), which, together with 2-deoxy- d -ribose, makes up the carbohydrate constituents of nucleic acids, which are found in all living organisms. The universal occurrence of nucleic acids in all living cells makes this pentose highly interesting to biochemists and biologists. The type of nucleic acid that yields d -ribose is referred to as ribonucleic acid (RNA). d -Ribose is a constituent not only of the nucleic acids, but also of several vitamins and coenzymes. As in the nucleic acids, this sugar occurs in the furanose

enlarge picture
(1)
configuration (see second structural formula) in these natural products. See Coenzyme, Deoxyribose, Nucleic acid, Vitamin

Ribose

 

a monosaccharide belonging to a group of pentoses (aldopentoses). Ribose exists as optically active D-ribose and L-ribose and as an inactive racemate. Ribose crystals are readily soluble in water. The melting point for D-ribose is 86°–87°C. Ribose characteristically has a high (8.5 percent) acyclic (aldehyde) content in solution. D-ribose is found in all living organisms. It is a component of the most important compounds that effect the transfer of information and energy in cells; these compounds include ribonucleic acids, nucleosides, mononucleotides and dinucleotides. Some coenzymes and bacterial polysaccharides also contain D-ribose.

ribose

[′rī‚bōs]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O5 A pentose sugar occurring as a component of various nucleotides, including ribonucleic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
The FTIR spectral changes confirms the nucleation of [Mg.sup.2+] ions in the collagen template which is exceptionally amorphous and non-stoichiometric with evidence of high level biomimicry analogous to the natural bone mineral and the active interaction and presence of ribose as crosslinker within the collagen and MgHA heteromolecular networking as seen in Fig.
sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway and differential expression analysis, the uridine production reached 5.04 mg/g with an increase of 28.6% when 2 mg/mL ribose was added, while uridine production reached 10.83 mg/g with a rise of 176.3% when 0.3 mg/mL uracil was added, indicating that the product inhibition for uridine nucleosidase by uracil was stronger than that by ribose.
(1994) Monoclonal antibodies to poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) recognize different structures.
As the molecular weight of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and beta-D-mannose is higher and cLog P value is higher for ribose, there is a least priority to these compounds to be used as drug.
Glucose, maltose, ribose, and galactose supplementation showed the highest production of rifamycin B at 5.78, 4.89, 4.35, and 3.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake at the day eight of incubation.
The sugar, if any, in the samples of nucleic acid that did not contain ribose was not identified for another twenty years.
These are profound shifts that supply the high levels of fatty acids and ribose needed to sustain the exponential rate of cell division.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, cluster of differentiation 38, and intracellular calcium levels in the lungs of septic rats increased significantly at 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture surgery
By seeing carbon-13 in the ribose and other sugars, the researchers knew chemical reactions in the ice, and not uninvited interlopers, were responsible for the results.
ROS-induced TRPM2 channel activation most probably occurs indirectly via formation of adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) which activates the channel by binding to a special domain located at the C-terminus of the channel [16].
The product contains a blend of premium, natural ingredients, including a substantial 2-gram dose of Bioenergy Ribose, a natural, clinically-proven 5-carbon sugar that the body uses to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
"Borates may have been important for the origin of life on Earth because they can stabilize ribose, a crucial component of RNA.