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ribose(rī`bōs), monosaccharide carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
..... Click the link for more information. of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
..... Click the link for more information. ), free nucleotidesnucleotide
, organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of either a purine or a pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions.
..... Click the link for more information. , and various coenzymescoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
..... Click the link for more information. . Its close relative, deoxyribose, is a constituent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); ribose has one more oxygen atom in its molecule than deoxyribose. Some of the best procedures for the laboratory preparation of ribose involve the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acid.
A water-soluble pentose, also known as d -ribose (see first structural formula), which, together with 2-deoxy- d -ribose, makes up the carbohydrate constituents of nucleic acids, which are found in all living organisms. The universal occurrence of nucleic acids in all living cells makes this pentose highly interesting to biochemists and biologists. The type of nucleic acid that yields d -ribose is referred to as ribonucleic acid (RNA). d -Ribose is a constituent not only of the nucleic acids, but also of several vitamins and coenzymes. As in the nucleic acids, this sugar occurs in the furanoseconfiguration (see second structural formula) in these natural products. See Coenzyme, Deoxyribose, Nucleic acid, Vitamin
a monosaccharide belonging to a group of pentoses (aldopentoses). Ribose exists as optically active D-ribose and L-ribose and as an inactive racemate. Ribose crystals are readily soluble in water. The melting point for D-ribose is 86°–87°C. Ribose characteristically has a high (8.5 percent) acyclic (aldehyde) content in solution. D-ribose is found in all living organisms. It is a component of the most important compounds that effect the transfer of information and energy in cells; these compounds include ribonucleic acids, nucleosides, mononucleotides and dinucleotides. Some coenzymes and bacterial polysaccharides also contain D-ribose.