rifampin


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rifampin

(rĭfăm`pĭn), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 used in the treatment of tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. It is also used to eliminate the meningococcus microorganism from carriers and to treat leprosyleprosy
or Hansen's disease
, chronic, mildly infectious malady capable of producing, when untreated, various deformities and disfigurements. It is caused by the rod-shaped bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, first described by G.
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, or Hansen's disease. Rifampin, or rifampicin as it was formerly called, acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in sensitive cells. It is a toxic drug whose side effects include flulike symptoms. Because resistant microorganisms emerge during treatment, rifampin is used along with other drugs, e.g., with isoniazidisoniazid
, drug used to treat tuberculosis. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease.
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 and ethambutol for tuberculosis treatment and with dapsone and clofazimine in the treatment of leprosy.
References in periodicals archive ?
A 2-month regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide (2HRZ) has been used for LTBI treatment in Portugal for over 20 years.
For rifampin, the corresponding MIC values were 0.0695 [+ or -] 0.0276 [micro]g/mL and 0.0453 [+ or -] 0.0223 [micro]g/mL, representing a 1.53-fold higher value in the relapse group.
A study, conducted by American Thoracic Society, stated that the findings were particularly encouraging because they suggest that at a high enough dose of daily rifampin may reduce the period of the treatment.
Genotypic assessment of isoniazid and rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a blind study at reference laboratory level.
We performed a nonrandomized, open-label, pilot study of rifampin pharmacokinetics in 6 HIV-infected adults (aged 18 to 55 years) who were naive to antiretroviral therapy and were receiving HIV care at the Partnership Comprehensive Care Practice (Philadelphia, PA).
The isolate in this case did not conform to previous findings, as the isolate was susceptible to rifampin but resistant to INH in two reference labs.
The patient was discharged on rifampin, ethambutol, and prednisone eight days after the biopsy results came back.
Compliance * ([dagger]) scheduled ([section]) Active TB cases (n = 11): completion of 6-month treatment for active TB disease with RIF, INH, and PZ * 11 94 132 140 28 4 93 124 133 37 ([paragraph]) 5 91 128 140 28 7 90 126 140 28 8 92 133 145 29 9 96 149 155 31 10 93 121 130 26 12 90 117 130 26 13 91 127 140 28 14 93 125 135 27 15 93 130 140 28 All 92 1,412 1,528 -- LTBI patients (n = 6): completion of 4-month treatment for LTBI with RIF 16 86 94 110 22 17 88 96 110 22 18 88 97 110 22 19 85 93 110 22 20 87 95 110 22 21 91 100 110 22 All 87 575 660 -- Abbreviations: INH = Isoniazid; LTBI = latent TB infection; PZA = Pyrazinamide; RIV = Rifampin. * Percentage of recommended doses taken.
* Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 2 weeks on an anti-TB medication regimen of INH, rifampin, and pyrazinamide, along with pyridoxine and a tapering dose of dexamethasone.
Seventy-two of 79 treatment eligible patients accepted the offer of treatment, which was three months of daily isoniazid and rifampin. Eleven patients discontinued treatments after starting, all within the first month of treatment.
Rifampin induces hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 resulting in protracted difficulty in maintaining therapeutic drug levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), inhibitors of the mammalian target of Rapamycin (MTOR), and corticosteroids [11, 12].
(5-7) In four out of six randomized, controlled trials, ofloxacin was the quinolone used in combination with rifampin. In three of these studies, the results were similar between the quinolone and the non-quinolone arms regarding initial treatment success and probability of relapse.