congenital heart disease

(redirected from right shunt)
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congenital heart disease,

any defect in the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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 present at birth. There is evidence that some congenital heart defects are inherited, but the cause of most cases is unknown. One known cause is infection of the mother with the rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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 (German measles) virus during the first trimester of pregnancy. Among the most common congenital heart disorders are malformations in the valves and the persistence of structures that are normally closed off at birth, i.e., the ductus arteriosis (the fetal blood vessel that shunts blood from the pulmonary vein to the aorta, bypassing the heart) and the foramen ovale (the opening between the left and right atria of the fetal heart). If the malformation is severe, it will produce various symptoms of insufficient heart function, such as cyanosis (a bluish tinge to the skin), dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), fatigue, and abnormal heartbeat; valvular deformities predispose the patient to bacterial infection of the endocardium (see endocarditisendocarditis
, bacterial or fungal infection of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart) that can be either acute or subacute. In the acute form the symptoms (fever, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, anemia) are directly related to the presence of an active infection that runs
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). Less severe malformations may not produce noticeable symptoms until later in life, and some may not require any medical attention. Many congenital heart defects that are debilitating can be corrected surgically. Other congenital anomalies, such as Down syndromeDown syndrome,
congenital disorder characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, slow physical development, and characteristic physical features. Down syndrome affects about 1 in every 730 live births and occurs in all populations equally.
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, are present in about 20% of cases of congenital heart disease. See also heart diseaseheart disease,
any of several abnormalities of the heart and its function in maintaining blood circulation. Heart disease is the cause of approximately half the deaths in the United States each year.
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References in periodicals archive ?
A shunt of at least 1.5:1 calculated by cardiac catheterization, as well as dilation of the right heart chambers secondary to significant left to right shunt, were indications for closure before the development of advanced noninvasive imaging methods.
In our study, most of patients had late presentation, so majority of patients were having pulmonary hypertension due to prolonged left to right shunt and progressive left AV valve regurgitation.
The 2D echocardiogram (2DE) revealed a perimembranous VSD, left to right shunt with a maximum pressure gradient of 105 mmHg.
Follow up echocardiography at 72 hours of life: 2.5 mm PDA with significant left to right shunt.
As a result of the changes in cardiopulmonary circulation, patients with truncus arteriosus present with a left to right shunt that increases the pulmonary blood flow.
Small VSD with trivial left to right shunt and normal pulmonary arterial pressure are asymptomatic and is usually found during routine physical examination.
Transthoracic Echocardiogram suggested a large (10 mm) PDA with left to right shunt. Pulmonary artery mean pressure was 36 mm Hg, consistent with mild pulmonary hypertension (25-35 mm Hg).
Once the patient was extubated, the left to right shunt increased with the manifestations of heart failure, pulmonary overload, hypoxemia, and tachycardia.
Total 45 patients with congenital VSD and severe pulmonary artery hypertension due to large left to right shunt underwent PA-banding during the study period.
Asymptomatic adult patients do not require surgical intervention as there is normal life expectancy without a clinically significant left to right shunt. Indications for surgery include left to right shunt > 50%, resulting in pulmonary hypertension or heart failure, recurrent pulmonary infections, and anomalous vein compression of surrounding structures
Heart failure has been associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis in the presence of a painless type A dissection, in a patient presenting with persistent cough (5) Rupture of aortic dissection into the right atrium, right ventricle, or main pulmonary artery may lead to a left to right shunt and congestive heart failure (6).
The presence of specific paediatric conditions, such as a left to right shunt (e.g.