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respectively Spanish and Portuguese terms for river. For those not listed here, see under the second element of the name. Thus, for Río Lerma, see LermaLerma
, river, c.350 mi (560 km) long, rising in Mexico state, central Mexico. It flows NW and W through Guanajuato state to Lake Chapala, crossing the part of the central plateau known as the Anáhuac.
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Rio de Janeiro

, Rio
1. a port in SE Brazil, on Guanabara Bay: the country's chief port and its capital from 1763 to 1960; backed by mountains, notably Sugar Loaf Mountain; founded by the French in 1555 and taken by the Portuguese in 1567. Pop.: 11 469 000 (2005 est.)
2. a state of E Brazil. Capital: Rio de Janeiro. Pop.: 14 724 475 (2002). Area: 42 911 sq. km (16 568 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(MPEG-1 Audio Layer III) The audio compression technology that revolutionized digital music (see "MP3 Shook Up the Industry" below). Derived from the audio sections of the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video specifications, MP3 compresses CD-quality sound by a factor of roughly 10, while retaining most of the original fidelity. For example, a 40MB CD track is turned into approximately a 4MB MP3 file. See CD-DA.

MP3 files are played on the computer via media player software, such as iTunes and Windows Media Player, as well as in iPods and audio equipment (see digital music player). MP3 sound quality cannot fully match the original CD, and true audiophiles complain bitterly, but millions of people consider it "good enough" because they can pack thousands of songs into a tiny pocket-sized device.

Converting a digital audio track from a music CD to the MP3 format (or other audio format) is called "ripping" or "importing," and this conversion function is built into iTunes, Windows Media Player and other jukebox software.

Bit Rates Are Important
While 128 Kbps is considered the norm for MP3 files, MP3s can be ripped to bit rates up to 320 Kbps. The higher the rate, the better the sound and larger the file. There are variations of MP3 and other widely used audio formats (see codec examples). See high-resolution audio, MP3 VBR and mp3PRO.

The Encoding Bit Rate
This dialog box from Windows Media Player shows "Audio quality" set to 192 Kbps. The slider selects four encoding rates: 128, 192, 256 and 320.

MP3 Shook Up the Industry

By the end of the 1990s, music fans discovered that a CD song title converted to MP3 would still sound pretty good even though it was only 1/10th the size of the original CD track. Smaller files meant faster downloading. At an average of 4MB, it took less than 15 minutes to download a file over an analog dial-up modem. With a broadband connection on a college campus, it took seconds.

MP3 created a worldwide auditioning system for new musicians who could freely distribute their music to gain an audience. It also let people swap copyrighted titles with impunity. File sharing services such as the original Napster and Kazaa made it a global phenomenon, and the record industry went into a frenzy over violations of its copyrights (see Napster). Today, copyrighted MP3 files are still shared over the Internet; however, online music stores, including the resurrected Napster, sell songs legally and successfully. See peer-to-peer network and DRM.

Developed in Germany
MP3 was developed in the late 1980s by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany. Released in 1993, MP3 uses perceptual audio coding to compress the data by eliminating frequencies that would not normally be heard because they overlap and cancel each other. See ID3 tag, audioblog, podcast, iPod, AAC, codec examples, perceptual audio coding and cuckoo egg.

Proof of the Pudding
These examples taken in a Mac show the original CD file sizes (top) and the resulting MP3 files (bottom). The CD was ripped to MP3 in iTunes at a recording rate of 160 Kbps, and the album was reduced from 344MB to 39MB. When a music CD is inserted into a Mac, the CD's files appear in Apple's AIFF format, which is the same uncompressed 16-bit PCM format as the CD (see AIFF, CD-DA and PCM).

Proof of the Pudding
These examples taken in a Mac show the original CD file sizes (top) and the resulting MP3 files (bottom). The CD was ripped to MP3 in iTunes at a recording rate of 160 Kbps, and the album was reduced from 344MB to 39MB. When a music CD is inserted into a Mac, the CD's files appear in Apple's AIFF format, which is the same uncompressed 16-bit PCM format as the CD (see AIFF, CD-DA and PCM).


An open standard, packet-switched fabric from the RapidIO Trade Association, Austin, TX (www.rapidio.org). It is used for the switch backplane in networking, storage, military and industrial devices. Replacing proprietary interconnects, RapidIO is widely implemented in carrier infrastructure switches for 2G/3G, VoIP and video applications.

Using 8b10b encoding and 256-byte packets, RapidIO Version 1.0 provides data rates from 1 to 10 Gbps in both directions. Version 2.0 increases the rate to 40 Gbps.

Multi-Layer, Flexible and QoS
Designed with independent logical, transport and physical layers, RapidIO supports flow control, data streaming and multicast. It also supports up to 256 traffic classes, enabling identification of a wide variety of applications for fine tuning quality of service (QoS).
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References in periodicals archive ?
El Seminario dio continuidad a la agenda de analisis de los eventos anteriores de la RII, centrada en las diversas dimensiones y alcances de las transformaciones urbano-regionales que estan teniendo lugar en paises de America Latina y de Europa.
* RII can represent 60 to 90 percent of wet weather extraneous flows;
Based on the equipment risk factor, the variable with the highest RII in Period I is C3 (delayed mobilization of equipment), while in Periods II and III, the C5 variable (tool breakdown).
This is very important not only for the Philippines; this is important for the world, so you have to keep the traditional way of being a cultural landscape, Rii said.
Low education was associated with higher risk of stillbirth from all causes in every period, as shown in Table 2 (RII) and Table 3 (SII).
La RII fue creada en 1994 por un grupo de investigadores iberoamericanos de larga y reconocida trayectoria en el estudio de estas tematicas.
The additional peak was derived from the deletion of the [(A).sub.10] repeat in TGF-[beta] RII. To analyze the [(A).sub.10] repeat in TGF-[beta] RII, the conventional method that contained SSCP analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing was done [14].
Los organizadores del van Seminario de la RII, en coordinacion con la Red de Revistas de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades de America Latina, el Caribe, Espana y Portugal (Redalyc), extendieron una invitacion a editores y directores de revistas sobre temas de globalizacion y territorio para participar en este Taller, con la finalidad de intercambiar conocimientos, experiencias y propuestas sobre los procesos de edicion y difusion editorial, asi como para fomentar el dialogo y la colaboracion, buscando con ello generar redes inter-institucionales de alcance regional y local que contribuyan al mejoramiento de la calidad y visibilidad de la produccion editorial cientifica del area.
The Pasig court ordered the elder Romero and his companies RII Builders Inc.
Sodangi [4] used RII to report factors governing the development of holistic framework for the maintenance of heritage building.