In de Lima and Abrantes  the authors estimated very shallow flow velocities (overland and rill flow), by injecting a thermal tracer (e.g., heated water) into very shallow flows and visualizing the leading edge of the tracer by means of infrared video.
Abrantes, "Using a thermal tracer to estimate overland and rill flow velocities," Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol.
Research on soil erosion mechanics has established a link between soil surface shear strength on one hand, and rill flow
and splash detachment processes on the other (Brunori et al., 1989).
[T.sub.c] = the transport capacity of the rill flow (kg [m.sup.-1] [s.sup.-1]).
Detachment is also zero when the sediment load is equal to or greater than the transport capacity of the rill flow. Transport capacity in the WEPP model is calculated by the following simplified transport equation:
The third strip is corn, and it experiences a very high level of erosion from the relatively clean water leaving the alfalfa strip, with the erosion rate gradually decreasing because detachment of the rill flow
is decreased as sediment in transport is increased (Equation 7.2).
As a result, more frequent rill flow
with greater stream power was simulated in the eastern part (not shown).
(1989); however, under the simple conditions used for this study, detachment capacity of rill flow
may be estimated by the shear-based equation
On upland surfaces soil-particle detachment by rainsplash, transport by interrill flow, and both detachment and transport by rill flow
are often the dominant processes.
Chemical tracing procedures, originally developed for stream and river systems, have been successfully used to me sure rill flow
A spring found on the site animates the green, and its rill flows
along the main axis of the development.
EUROSEM, however, can additionally treat rill flows
and rill/interrill microtopography in an explicit manner as indicated below.