NICS is comprehensively used to express the aromaticity of molecules because it can clearly and simply monitor the condition of ring current
. Aromatic systems have pretty negative NICS values, antiaromatic systems have strongly positive NICS values, and nonaromatic cyclic systems should have NICS values close to zero [35,42-44].
In this study we will analyze several intervals of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity observed by these spacecraft, as well as simultaneous variations in ring current
fluxes and cold plasma.
The one at 100 ppm is assigned to diamagnetically shift inner nanotubes ([beta]-position) due to ring current
from [pi] electrons on outer nanotubes.
However, the X-ray flux from very energetic flares causes sufficient change to the level of ionisation (and thus conductivity) of the ionosphere that the normal ring current
flowing around the Earth is also disturbed.
The up-field shifts of both tetrapyrrole-H and tetraphenyl-H in [K.sup.+]- or Ca- bound [TPPS.sub.4] are mainly due to electrostatic interaction between porphyrin-core and metal ion, and such interaction reduces the "ring current
" on both tetrapyrrole and tetraphenyl (because of their co-planar conjugation), increasing the nuclear shielding of all these protons.
The system of currents that can move water from west to east around southern Florida includes the ring current
to the west, the loop current along the southern tip of the state and the Gulf Stream which pushes north along the eastern U.S.
In a magnetic storm the Van Allen radiation belts (the charged plasma particles surrounding the Earth) are rearranged, creating a doughnut that carries a ring current
of 100 kiloelectronvolt plasma around the Earth.
After a brief historical review of early ring current
studies, 32 papers on the physics and structures of the earth's inner magnetosphere are organized into sections that deal with the sources and losses of plasma and energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere, energetic particle acceleration mechanisms, external driving mechanisms of the inner magnetosphere, observational aspects of inner magnetosphere dynamics, and large-scale modeling efforts of the inner magnetosphere.
In so doing, it creates a strong electric current, or ring current
, which partially girdles the magnetosphere's equator and is much greater on Earth's nightside than dayside.
On July 20, the high-field superconducting ring, which will be magnetically levitated for several hours in a large vacuum vessel, was tested to a total ring current
of 1.57 million amperes.