Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Idioms, Wikipedia.



of fruit, the bringing of unripened fruit to consumer ripeness. Fruit can be ripened in warehouses, or storage facilities, or in specially equipped lockers (artificial ripening). The winter varieties of apples and pears, as a rule, do not ripen on the tree. The summer and autumn varieties of apples and pears, as well as apricots, tomatoes, peaches, and melons are often harvested unripe to increase their transport-ability and length of storage. With ripening the fruit acquires its consumer qualities (taste, aroma, and so forth).

Ripening, whether on the plant or not, breaks down the compound organic substances of the fruits in simple ones—for example, protopectin turns into soluble pectin, starch is converted into sugar, and the fruit’s acid content is reduced. As a result, the fruit becomes softer and sweeter. Ripened (on the plant or artificially) fruit acquires its characteristic color as a result of the formation of coloring substances (pigments) in it. However, in fruit that is plant-ripened substances not only break down, but are also synthesized. The taste qualities of such fruit are higher than of fruit ripened in storage. For this reason, immature fruit is harvested and subsequently ripened only when necessary. Tomatoes are almost always artificially ripened.

Undamaged fruit is placed in open, well-ventilated boxes to ripen. Storage facilities are ventilated, heated, and protected from daylight. The speed of the artificial ripening depends upon the air humidity and temperature in the warehouse or locker. The relative air humidity should not be over 80 percent. To slow down ripening, fruit (for example, apples, pears, stone fruits, and melons) is stored at the lowest possible temperature, and to accelerate ripening, at approximately 20°C. At temperatures above 25°C, ripening is also retarded, and the decomposition of certain vitamins begins. In tomatoes the coloring pigment does not form and the fruit .becomes yellow.

Ripening can be accelerated by stimulants—for example, ethylene (a gas). Ethylene ripening of tomatoes is particularly effective, as the green mature fruit can be ripened in five days. In northern regions it is advisable to harvest green tomatoes and to ripen them artificially. This makes it possible to obtain ripe fruit one month earlier than with natural vine ripening. Ethylene ripening is done in airtight lockers kept in heated areas.

Triple-ply plywood lockers can be used for small batches of fruit. The fruit is placed on the shelves of the chambers in two or three layers, and the ethylene is introduced (1 liter of gas per cu m of locker). Large batches of fruit are placed in boxes and ripened in lockers equipped with heat and ventilation. Up to 80 kg of fruit can be placed per sq m of shelf. The lockers are filled with ethylene every 24 hours until the fruit has turned russet, after which the supply of gas is turned off. The fruit may also be ripened in gas-tight lockers filled with oxygen (60-80 percent of the locker’s volume). The lockers are kept at approximately 20°C. The fruit is kept in oxygen for three days, after which it ripens well under ordinary conditions.


Rakitin, Iu. V. Rukovodstvo po uskoreniiu sozrevaniia pomidorov pri pomoshchi etilena, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Metlitskii, L. V. Biokhimiia na strazhe urozhaia. Moscow, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
MNA Tahira Aurangzeb raised the issue during the last session of the National Assembly and asked if there was any proposal under the consideration of the government to impose a ban on the ripening of fruits by using calcium carbide in Islamabad.
A first step in analyzing the logistics of cervical ripening and induction of labor is to avoid blending the 2 together as a continuous process and to clearly separate them into their individual elements.
Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production, assesses the physicochemical and microbiological profile during ripening process and evaluates the sensorial acceptance of sausage after ripening.
In this context, the current study aimed to identify biomarkers associated to the ripening process, condition and period of storage in 'Gala' apples.
Ceiling-mounted fin coil evaporators or evaporators with outside condensing units are commonly used for maintaining the desired level of low temperature and humidity inside ripening rooms.
The cheese ripening is a very complex microbiological and biochemical process which involves the enzymatic digestion of curd components.
Mango exporters need to have full knowledge of fruit's ripening stages particularly the middle stage because it helps them assess for how long the fruit can endure transportation duration.
The fruit were harvested at five different ripening stages based on peel color.
Mango traders buy this ' masala' and use it for quick ripening of the fruit by adding a sachet at every layer of mangoes in cartons.
The four SMS per treatments underwent chemical and physico-chemical analysis to determine the effects of ripening duration and adding rosemary.
05) differences among all treatments during ripening period (90 days).
Asrael, Ripening, Epilogue), or the more recent ones made by Belohlavek (Chandos and Supraphon, with the Czech Philharmonic and the BBC Symphony Orchestra) or KiriII Petrenko (Tale of a Winter's Evening, Asrael, A Summer's Tale, Ripening; Czech Philharmonic).