Design Variable Ranges for Side Riser Optimization Lower Upper Number Design Variable Limit Limit Step of Steps Contact Width 20 mm 40 mm 10 mm 3 Contact Height 30 mm 50 mm 10 mm 3 Radius, top of Contact 12 mm 18 mm 6 mm 2 Radius, Bottom of Contact 12 mm 18 mm 6 mm 2 Contact Length 12 mm 18 mm 6 mm 2 Radius, Riser Base 12 mm 36 mm 12 mm 3 Sleeve Thickness 0 mm 12 mm 12 mm 2 Riser Height
50 mm 75 mm 25 mm 3 Riser Base Height 60 mm 90 mm 15 mm 3 Riser Diameter 50 mm 100 mm 25 mm 3
The main objective in this research is evaluation of uniformity coefficient of water distribution in different conditions of riser height
, wind speed and sprinklers spacing.
Divide the vertical distance by a selected riser height
. This answer will indicate how many risers are required to traverse the slope.
The NFPA 5000, issued in August 2002, requires a minimum tread depth of 11 inches and a maximum riser height
of 7 inches for both residential and commercial buildings.
This translates to a tread width of 11 inches and a riser height
of about 6.5 inches (see Figure 2).
Concrete can be formed with any riser height
and tread depth and can be built without the benefit of retaining walls alongside (Figure 21-3) See Chapter 23 for forming and paring concrete stairs.
Follow our instructions for figuring your riser height
(Photo 1), Then pick out wallstones of this height to use for your risers.
The riser height
remains the same for corners, but the tread length is longer due to the angled placement (Figure 30-5).
The actual recommended riser height
is 6-1/2 to 8 in., but you'll determine that later.
During the optimization process, the riser height
and width were allowed to vary, and the objective function was to minimize the amount of microporosity in the casting [measured using the Franco Chiesa Criterion (FCC) Criterion].