At first sight, the tempo curve (figure 4a) betrays the three-part structure of the piece: the middle section (bars 13-21) is played more slowly than the two outer sections, and the endings of all three sections are clearly articulated with a strong ritardando
(an extreme slowing down).
Under this type of acceleration, with a percentage change of x%, each duration is exactly [(1+ x/100 ).sup.-1] times as long as the previous duration (or 1+ x/100 for a ritardando
1 (1950-51); the haunting sense ofmovement and yet stasis as the accelerando and ritardando
piano andharpsichord seem to pass each other (or become each other) whilestanding still (or remaining themselves) in the center movement of theDouble Concerto; the sense of one conception evolving out ofanother--generative and yet inexorably new--in the Variations forOrchestra; the floating, ineffable melodies of the strings against theclanging, massive chords of multiple orchestras in the Symphony of ThreeOrchestras; and the dramatic dialogue between impassioned chords andurgent runs in Night Fantasies.
accelerando and ritardando
, crescendo and decrescendo, mezza voce and portamento, legato and staccato etc., on the other hand, free passages, runs and similar fioriture.'(24)
'Every time a little ritardando
or a change of rhythm occurs, one can feel him inwardly sending out an urgent plea to Quexicatuatl for help.' Some of the best passages in the book depict Hindemith's meetings with relatives who had emigrated to America long before, notably his paternal uncle Gustav, who had built and equipped his own house in the country and went on to found a small orchestra.
The delicate use of harmonic color, coupled with a coy indication of poco ritardando
at the close of phrases gives an improvisatory whimsy to the piece.
3, the chromatically descending bass, the ritardando
A serious error is there fore committed, when a singer, in order to give spirit to the final cadences of a piece, uses a ritardando
at the last bar but one, instead of the tempo rubato; as while aiming at spirit and enthusiasm, he only becomes awkward and dull.
The broad stream of the river as it enters Prague is almost too sprightly and lithe, but this means that the entry of the Vysehrad theme, prepared for by a very effective ritardando
, is all the more impressive.
Epstein (Shaping time, pp.504-5, n-14) observes that Brahms changed the last not of bar 29 to duple-time demisemiquavers in the autograph, thus creating a built-in ritardando
; he argues that this supports his proposed 4:3 ratio.
The music takes on a transitional aspect not from the suggestion of fermatas, as seen in the introduction in Example 1, but rather from the suggestion of ritardando
, where the gradual slowing of the pulse interferes with Taylor's almost incessant sense of forward motion.