robotics


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

robotics,

science and technology of general purpose, programmable machine systems. Contrary to the popular fiction image of robotsrobot
or automaton
mechanical device designed to perform the work generally done by a human being. The Czech dramatist Karel Čapek popularized the expression [Czech,=compulsory labor] in his play R. U. R.
..... Click the link for more information.
 as ambulatory machines of human appearance capable of performing almost any task, most robotic systems are anchored to fixed positions in factories where they perform a flexible, but restricted, number of operations in computer-aided manufacturingcomputer-aided manufacturing
(CAM), a form of automation where computers communicate work instructions directly to the manufacturing machinery. The technology evolved from the numerically controlled machines of the 1950s, which were directed by a set of coded instructions
..... Click the link for more information.
. Such a system minimally contains a computer to control operations and effecters, devices that perform the desired work. Additionally, it might have sensors and auxiliary equipment or tools under its control. Some robots are relatively simple mechanical machines that perform a dedicated task such as welding or spray painting. Other more complex, multitask systems use sensory systems to gather information needed to control its work. A robot's sensors might provide tactile feedback, so that it can pick up objects and place them properly, without damaging them. Another robot sensory system might include a form of machine vision that can detect flaws in manufactured goods. Some robots used to assemble electronic circuit boards can place odd-sized components in the proper location after visually locating positioning marks on the board. The simplest form of mobile robots, used to deliver mail in office buildings or to gather and deliver parts in manufacturing, follow the path of a buried cable or a painted line, stopping whenever their sensors detect an object or person in their path. More complex mobile robots are used in more unstructured environments such as mining.

Bibliography

See H. Moravec, Mind Children (1988); R. C. Dorf, Concise International Encyclopedia of Robotics (1990); J. T. Black, The Design of the Factory with a Future (1991).

robotics

[rō′bäd·iks]
(industrial engineering)
The study of problems associated with the design, application, and control and sensory systems of self-controlled devices.

Robotics

A field of engineering concerned with the development and application of robots, and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. There are many types of robotic systems, including robotic manipulators, robotic hands, mobile robots, walking robots, aids for disabled persons, telerobots, and microelectromechanical systems.

The term “robotics” has been broadly interpreted. It includes research and engineering activities involving the design and development of robotic systems. Planning for the use of industrial robots in manufacturing or evaluation of the economic impact of robotic automation can also be viewed as robotics. This breadth of usage arises from the interdisciplinary nature of robotics, a field involving mechanisms, computers, control systems, actuators, and software. See Biomechanics, Computer, Control systems, Cybernetics, Electrical engineering, Industrial engineering, Mechanical engineering, Software engineering

Robots produce mechanical motion that, in most cases, results in manipulation or locomotion. Mechanical characteristics for robotic mechanisms include degrees of freedom of movement, size and shape of the operating space, stiffness and strength of the structure, lifting capacity, velocity, and acceleration under load. Performance measures include repeatability and accuracy of positioning, speed, and freedom from vibration.

A robot control system directs the motion and sensory processing of a robot or system of cooperating robots. The controller may consist of only a sequencing device for simple robots, although most multiaxis industrial robots today employ servo-controlled positioning of their joints by a microprocessor-based system.

The robot sensory system gathers specific information needed by the control system and, in more advanced systems, maintains an internal model of the environment to enable prediction and decision making. The joint position transducers on industrial robots provide a minimal sensory system for many industrial applications, but other sensors are needed to gather data about the external environment. Sensors may detect position, velocity, acceleration, visual, proximity, acoustic, force-torque, tactile, thermal, and radiation data.

As information moves up from the sensory device, the amount of information increases and the speed of data acquisition decreases. These control architectures form the basis for computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), a hierarchical approach to organizing automated factories. A new paradigm has emerged, based on the interconnection of intelligent system elements that can learn, reason, and modify their configuration to satisfy overall system requirements. One of the most important of these approaches is based on holonic systems. See Automation, Computer-integrated manufacturing, Intelligent machine

A telerobotic system augments humans by allowing them to extend their ability to perform complex tasks in remote locations. It is a technology that couples the human operator's visual, tactile, and other sensory perception functions with a remote manipulator or mobile robot. These systems are useful for performing tasks in environments that are dangerous or not easily accessible for humans. Telerobotic systems are used in nuclear handling, maintenance in space, undersea exploration, and servicing electric transmission lines. Perhaps the most important sensory data needed for telepresence are feedback of visual information, robot position, body motion and forces, as well as tactile information. Master-slave systems have been developed in which, for example, a hand controller provides control inputs to an articulated robotic manipulator. These systems are capable of feeding back forces felt by the robot to actuators on the exoskeletal master controller so that the operator can “feel” the remote environment. See Human-machine systems, Remote manipulators

Graphical simulation is used to design and evaluate a workcell layout before it is built. The robot motion can be programmed on the simulation and downloaded to the robot controller. Companies market software systems that include libraries of commercially available robots and postprocessors for off-line robot programming. See Simulation

robotics

the science or technology of designing, building, and using robots

robotics

The art and science of the creation and use of robots and robotic devices. See robot, collaborative robotics, AI, CRO, artificial life, autoloader, automation, autonomous weapon and brain-machine interface.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the services offered by IQ Robotics, through its partners, include autonomous picking and sorting vehicles that will make logistics more seamless and efficient for SMEs as well as large-scale enterprises.
* To study and analyze the Global Healthcare Robotics Market size by key regions/countries, product type and application, history data from 2013 to 2018, and forecast to 2025.
Huskie Robotics also plans to bring a red chair as part of the National Center for Women and Informational Technology's "Sit with Me" campaign.
Shentong Robot Education Group Company Limited is the only enterprise in Heilongjiang Province authorised to provide robotics-related education and training, and host robot sports competitions for the entire province (collectively, the "Robotics Education").
"This is because robotics is not yet in the mindset of companies to invest in robotics because they think it is expensive, but I don't think it is expensive," said noting that industrial robots can cost $15,000 to $60,000-$70,000.
The various kinds of products available in the global robotics market can be classified into exoskeleton, mobile robotics, and static robotics.
Achievements of three robotic firms will also be put on display in the exhibition which will be held on the sidelines of the conference.
Forbes says investors have already committed $10 million into Reach Robotics, including London Venture Partners; and the UK-based company now has 32 full-time employees.
31 August 2018 - Danish robotic equipment company OnRobot has acquired startup robotics firm Purple Robotics, the company said.
Islamabad -- LG Electronics' recent investment in US-based Bossa Nova Robotics marks the first overseas investment in a robotics partner by LG following a number of deals with Korean startups over the past year.
LG Electronics has admitted that robotics is a big part of its ThinQ AI strategy and it is crucial for its company's growth, which explains why it has made another big investment in a U.S,-based robotics firm. 
announced investment in US shelf-scanning robot company Bossa Nova Robotics, its

Full browser ?