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the working members (instruments) of a rolling mill. Rolls perform the basic rolling operation: the deformation (reduction) of the metal to give it the required dimensions and shape. The rolls consist of three elements: the barrel, two journals (trunnions), and the driving end (the “wobbler”). Rolls are divided into flattening and fluted types. Flattening rolls are used to roll sheets, plates and strips, and bars; the barrel of such a roll is cylindrical, slightly convex or concave. (Such rolls are also called smooth.) Fluted rolls are used to roll shaped (fluted) metal (circular or square cross sections, rails, I-beams, and so on); the grooves that correspond to the profile of the metal to be formed are made in the barrel surfaces of these rolls. The notches are called passes (the passes of two rolls form gauges), and the rolls are called grooved (gauging) rolls.

The basic dimensions of rolls (diameter and barrel length) depend on the gauge of the rolled product. The roll diameter for hot rolling is 250-300 mm (wire rolling) to 1,000-1,400 mm (bloom and slab rolling). For cold rolling, rolls are used with diameters from 5 mm (in 20-roll mills in foil rolling) to 600 mm (in quarto mills in the rolling of thin strips).

Cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 35-45 (produced by casting in sand-clay molds) are the least expensive and are used in the hot rolling of soft strip steel; cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 55-75 (produced by casting in metallic molds—chill molds) are used in sheet mills and in the finishing stands of section and wire mills; alloyed (with chromium, nickel, or molybdenum) cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 40-70 are used in section rail and structural and thin-sheet hot-rolling mills; and steel rolls are used in blooming mills, slabbing mills, reduction stands of section mills and in cold-rolling mills. The working rolls of small multiple-roll mills, as well as flatting mills for the spreading of high-strength steel wire, are produced from ceramic hard tungsten-carbide alloys (with cobalt added); the wear resistance of such rolls is 30-50 times greater than that of steel alloyed rolls. Wear-resistant and strong rolls for section and sheet rolling are obtained by metal surfacing with hard and superhard alloys.

Worn rolls are restored by returning on roll-turning lathes or regrinding (for sheet-mill rolls) on roll-grinding lathes.


Tselikov, A. I., and V. V. Smirnov. Prokatnye stany. Moscow, 1958.
Korolev, A. A. Mekhanicheskoe oborudovanie prokatnykh tsekhov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.




the operating members of crushing, flour-milling, punching, and other machines in the form of smooth or grooved rolls, cylinders, or cones (generally rotating in different directions) that process the material passing between them; they include forging rolls, crushing rolls, and others.

References in classic literature ?
From the child at the breast to the hand at the plough Shall roll to the ocean like Shannon in flood!
This man had to roll the ball, to watch the stakes as they were laid down, to gather them off the colour which lost, to pay those who won, to do it all with the utmost dispatch, to roll the ball again, and to keep this game perpetually alive.
As the Ghost rolled her side out of water, the boat was lifted snugly against her, and before the return roll came, we had heaved it in over the side and turned it bottom up on the deck.
The stars that had flown to the roll came back on the return swing of the ship, rushing downwards in their glittering multitude, not of fiery points, but enlarged to tiny discs brilliant with a clear wet sheen.
Horses make another struggle to get up the bank, and again the coach rolls backward.
Several times Condon attempted to draw the lad into a card game; but his victim was not interested, and the black looks of several of the other men passengers decided the American to find other means of transferring the boy's bank roll to his own pocket.
All this time, the roll of the drum had been approaching through Cornhill, louder and deeper, till with reverberations from house to house, and the regular tramp of martial footsteps, it burst into the street.
Neither before nor since have I felt a ship roll so abruptly, so violently, so heavily.
The ship gave a big roll just then, so that the looking-glass, which was fixed opposite us to starboard, was for a moment nearly over our heads, and as I was sitting with my hands in my pockets and staring upwards, I could see him nodding like anything.
Our Bretons are going to continue to roll the canoe towards the sea.
I must find a halter for him," said Tip; and having made a search in his pocket he produced a roll of strong cord.
A temporary easement of the Arangi's rolling gave him his opportunity, so that his forefeet were over the high combing of the companion when the next big roll came.