ronin

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ronin

(rō`nĭn), in Japanese history, masterless samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
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. Ronin were retainers who were deprived of their place in the usual loyalty patterns of Japanese feudalism. The daimyodaimyo
[Jap.,=great name], the great feudal landholders of Japan, the territorial barons as distinguished from the kuge, or court nobles. Great tax-free estates were built up from the 8th cent.
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 they had served might have died, been exiled, or become so poor that the samurai had to abandon his lord. Ronin became farmers, monks, soldiers of fortune, or even bandits. In demand in times of war, they were often a burden on society in times of peace. At their best, as in the story of the 47 Ronin depicted by Chikamatsu in his popular drama, they are a model of loyalty and self-sacrifice exemplifying bushidobushido
[Jap.,=way of the warrior], code of honor and conduct of the Japanese nobility. Of ancient origin, it grew out of the old feudal bond that required unwavering loyalty on the part of the vassal. It borrowed heavily from Zen Buddhism and Confucianism.
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. In modern Japan, the term ronin is often given to high-school graduates who, having failed to pass college entrance exams, are preparing for another opportunity.
References in periodicals archive ?
The challenge in supporting America's Ronin Refugees begins with identification.
Accordingly, every Ronin should have a record of their participation with the U.S.
The Ronin's continued military service puts them at risk from anti-Afghan forces.
(12) While the number of potential Ronin refugees from Afghanistan remains relatively stable for now, the potential for a massive security force implosion as seen in Iraq is possible without continued U.S.
Within this figure, there are an unknown number of Ronin who have a history of dedicated service with U.S.
government are offered a separate path in the refugee resettlement process through the SIV, the military service of the Ronin is not similarly counted.
Instead, the Ronin are left to find asylum within a broader international refugee system, while the U.S.
The Ronin are now entering a system that is overwhelmed and limited in resources.
(21) Further complicating the issue for the Ronin is that their plight is relatively unknown and marred by the complexity of unconventional conflicts.
Given that the Ronin may be hiding within their countries of origin or living as refugees abroad, their ability to seek help from the UNHCR depends on the size and availability of local UNHCR resources.
(24) For the Ronin, these countries are unfavorable for long-term safety due to the presence of Taliban and other nonstate actors, strained diplomatic relations with the United States, and linguistic and cultural barriers.
(28) The opportunity for the Ronin in Iraq and Afghanistan to receive assistance from their closest UNHCR center is limited by the global response to the Syrian refugee crisis.