The MANOVA results indicated that factor A and D have a significant effect on the responses accordingly Roy's Largest Root test
. But, B and C factors have no significant effect on the responses.
"Unit Root Test
in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-sample Properties".
To check I(0) and I(1) we will apply the unit root test
. In this research ARDL approach will be used to find out the long-run relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP, energy consumption and trade openness.
The within-dimension statistics are based on the estimators that effectively pooled the autoregressive coefficient across different members for the unit root test
on the estimated residuals while the between-dimension simply average the individually estimated for each cross section i.
The results of ADF unit root test
are presented in table-2.
Moreover, DF-GLS unit root test
has improved predicting power when an unknown mean or trend is present.
A panel unit root test
is to be implemented on the levels of data without a trend and with a trend.
For these three economies, LP unit root test
with two breaks was performed (Table 3).
So as to fill this void, for the first time in the health economics literature, our current study, by utilizing the annual aggregate health-care inflation rate and the panel data of health-care inflation rate data from 17 major US urban areas for the period 1966-2006, applies a battery of the univariate, first- and second-generation panel unit root tests
, the panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test
that allows for two structural breaks recently developed by Im et al (2005) and the recent panel unit root test
of Carrion-i-Silvestre et al (2005) that allows for endogenously determined multiple structural breaks experienced by individual members of the panel and is flexible enough to control for the presence of cross-sectional dependence (CD).
Unit root test
, F statistics, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and Granger Causality Test, is also used to analyze the data.
Unit Root test
: Level of stability series expressed by Dickey and Fuller (1981) is defined by the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test
(Seddighi et al., 2000) (Eq.
In essence, our univariate unit root test
supports the nonstationarity of the inequality variable only for the post-1980s samples, while the real income and human capital data seem to follow a nonstationary process for the entire sample period.