The structure should be designed so that a maximum allowable overflow rate of 2 l / s * m is achieved by a targeted arrangement of roughness elements
in combination with eg a flood protection wall and / or a wave deflection wall.
1-3) have demonstrated experimentally that significant cycle time reductions can be achieved by adding pins (28% reduction) or roughness elements (18% reduction) to the exterior of a mold surface.
The external dimensions of the molds were 300 mm X 300 mm X 300 mm, and a 8-mm mold wall thickness excluding roughness elements and pins.
m = empirical factor accounting for the increased difference between maximum and mean shear stress on the erodible surface resulting from the flow around roughness elements (= 0.
The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion threshold.
Wall roughness elements
will be designed using fractal patterns in order to isolate the multi-scale effects of the roughness geometry.
The use of some regular (normally rectangle) roughness elements  or irregular and randomly distributed roughness elements  in the computation domain.
A number of researchers used the height of the roughness elements or the relative roughness to describe the magnitude of the roughness.
A caliper rod (Figure 1) was used to read the linear distance, L2, resulting from roughness elements
The increase in mold mass due to roughness elements
and pins have been included in the RotoSim simulations.
, on the other hand, are utilized in conjunction with turbulent flows, also producing significant increases in heat transfer rates.
In particular, the application of extended surfaces and roughness elements
to the exterior of a mold is investigated, and their benefit is demonstrated experimentally.