Besides the roughness factor
, surfaces are required to be free from crevices, sharp corners, protrusions and shadow areas.
The roughness factor
is changed in the range (0%, 0.4%, 4% and 10.0%).
The pattern must have neighboring features with different spaces described by different sinusoidal waves with a roughness factor
of 4 to 50.
The research study was carrying out using [L.sub.8] orthogonal arrays for Taguchi Method to analyze the surface roughness factor
. There were total of eight experiments to be runs with two levels (low and high levels) and three factors (spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut) which can be simplified by written in [L.sub.8] (23) orthogonal arrays.
The values of the roughness factor
[R.sub.a], calculated from the AFM data, are presented as function of the sputtering time in Figure 4.
MWCNT improves the roughness factor
of the electrode and limits the charge recombination of electron/hole ([e.sup.-]/[h.sup.+]) pairs 19].
where r is the surface roughness factor
, [[theta].sub.W] is the apparent contact angle in the Wenzel model, and [[theta].sub.Y] is the contact angle in Young's model .
For each of the technologies included in the database will compile information on a range of application, diameter restrictions, type and geometry of culvert they can be applied, diameter and/ or cross sectional reduction, structural capability, hydraulic analysis (roughness factor
), construction requirements, design life, life-cycle-cost, chemical (corrosion) and mechanical properties, maintenance issues and requirements, and other important parameters specific to the needs of MDOT, ODOT and other Midwestern states.
Depending on the application, components coming into contact with the product are made from high grade stainless steel with a roughness factor
(Ra) of between 0.8[micro]m.
From the ridge roughness [K.sub.r], the roughness factor
K can be calculated by the regression relationship derived from Woodruff & Siddoway (1965).
Here, r is a so-called roughness factor
(considering the profile of a rough surface), [[phi].sub.R] is the contact angle of the rough surface, [A.sub.R] is the true (rough) surface, and [A.sub.0] is a perfectly smooth surface.
The surface roughness and the roughness factor
were obtained from height images.