# round-off error

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## round-off error

[′rau̇n‚dȯf ‚er·ər]
(mathematics)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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The reason is that we firstly compute [??](i) = Clenshaw(P(i,: ), y) at the ith step in the loop of the CTP algorithm and then compute [??](0) = Clenshaw([??], x) leading to the more obviously influences of the round-off errors along x.
Keywords: N-Body Simulations, Jovian Problem, Numerical Integrator, Round-off error.
Essentially it is shown that the QR factorization using the modified Gram-Schmidt process (MGS) is less sensitive to the round-off error than the classical Gram-Schmidt process (GS) when using the fixed-point calculation format [4, 5].
There are two main issues related to fixed point implementation of a digital filter: quantisation of filter coefficients and control of round-off errors.
One must not be surprised by this, because such wrong answers could be the result of several factors such as bugs in program, lack of deep knowledge of mathematics on the part of the programmer, lack of attention of the programmer to special cases, pitfall in hardware designs, and most importantly, the round-off errors that result from memory limitation.
However, for k = 6 and k = 7 we found the round-off error to be so dominant (in the double-precision test runs) that the approximations produced by BOOTS were frequently inferior to the approximation from COLNEW.
From Theorem 3 we have known that round-off error [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
 describe a method for minimizing the round-off errors incurred in the calculations of higher order differentiation matrices.
Since round-off errors for random variables that are rounded to the nearest integer are distributed Uniform (-1/2, 1/2), the sum of round-off errors is a linearly transformed Irwin-Hall distribution .
The round-off errors in the calculation of q and r are propagated to s through Eq.
Average density of 2.89t/m3 for sulphide, 2,59t/m3 for oxide; minor rounding errors; significant figures quoted do not imply precision and are used to minimize round-off errors.

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