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precious stone, the transparent red variety of corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, found chiefly in Myanmar, Thailand, and Sri Lanka and classified among the most valuable of gems. The Myanmarese stones are blood red, the most valued tint being the "pigeon's blood." The Thai stones are darker and the Sri Lankan stones lighter than the Myanmarese specimens. Star rubies, i.e., those that show an internal star-shaped formation when cut in cabochon (with a rounded top), are rare. Synthetic rubies are manufactured by the fusion of pure aluminum oxide. Chromium oxide is added to provide the appropriate color.



(Late Latin rubinus, from the Latin rubeus, “red”), a variety of the mineral corundum (Al2O3) distinguished by the replacement of Al3+ ions by Cr3+ ions (from hundredths of a percent to 2 percent). The quantum transitions between the energy levels of the Cr3+ ions split by the crystal field give rise to the ruby’s red color (in contrast to the lack of color of corundum). The laser emission of ruby in the red part of the visible spectrum is related to the transitions between various levels of the Cr3+ ions, while the action of ruby as a quantum mechanical amplifier of radio waves (maser) is related to transitions between spin states.

The ruby is a precious stone of order I. In the USSR, rubies occur in alluvial deposits in the Central and Southern Urals. Outside the Soviet Union, there are important industrial deposits in Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka.

Synthetic rubies, obtained by the same process as that used for corundum (but with the addition of Cr2O3), are used in the jewelry and watchmaking industries. They also find use in quantum electronics as the active element of the maser and of the most common solid-state laser, which gives record energies and powers as well as giant pulses.


Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.
Rubinisapfir. Moscow, 1974.


What does it mean when you dream about a ruby?

A gemstone that varies from light pink to deep red, the ruby represents passion, the life force, and prosperity. The deeper and more intense the color, the more precious and expensive the stone.


The red variety of the mineral corundum; in its finest quality, the most valuable of gemstones.


July. [Am. Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 319–320]


represents intensity of feeling; July birthstone. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 28, 319]


1. a deep red transparent precious variety of corundum: occurs naturally in Myanmar and Sri Lanka but is also synthesized. It is used as a gemstone, in lasers, and for bearings and rollers in watchmaking. Formula: Al2O3
2. the deep-red colour of a ruby



1. A relational language designed by Jones and M. Sheeran in 1986 for describing and designing circuits (a hardware description language). Ruby programs denote binary relations and programs are built-up inductively from primitive relations using a pre-defined set of relational operators. Ruby programs also have a geometric interpretation as networks of primitive relations connected by wires, which is important when layout is considered in circuit design.

Ruby has been continually developed since 1986, and has been used to design many different kinds of circuits, including systolic arrays, butterfly networks and arithmetic circuits.

E-mail: <>.

["Ruby - A Language of Relations and Higher-Order Functions", M. Sheeran, Proc 3rd Banff Workshop on Hardware Verification, Springer 1990].


An interpreted, object-oriented programming language that is somewhat similar to Perl in syntax. Known for its easy manipulation of text strings, everything in Ruby is an object, including primitive elements. Ruby programs and libraries are distributed in Ruby's "gem" format using the RubyGems package manager. JRuby is a Ruby implementation written in Java, and eRuby is an embedded version.

Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails (RoR) is an open source application framework for Ruby that is widely used for writing Web applications.

Rubies and Pearls
Written by Yukihiro Matsumoto and introduced in 1995, Ruby was named after the July birthstone that followed the Pearl birthstone of June. The design goal for Ruby was to create a language that was more intuitive for the programmer than previous languages. For more information, visit
References in periodicals archive ?
The initial finding from the artisanal pits shows the occurrence of both primary and secondary mineralization consisting of both higher and lower quality rubies.
Mozambique is currently the largest producer of rubies in the world and we are excited to enter this jurisdiction.
"This symbolic status creates a wealth of synergies between rubies and the Rolls-Royce Phantom Coupe, a sleek and seductive combination of classic proportions, powerful presence and breath-taking detailing, celebrating sporting style and glamour, making them the perfect bespoke fit for one another."
"Rubies are among a small and unique group of gemstones and precious metals that have the rarity, historical significance and symbolic power to truly complement a Rolls-Royce vehicle," said Arno Husselmann, general manager of Abu Dhabi Motors.
Rubies' move to 1115 Broadway is part of a larger migration to the building in recent years among costume and seasonal products tenants who may have at first simply sought proximity to the Toy Center but, since Chetrit acquired the two building compound in the summer of 2004 and announced his conversion plans, have flocked to the building because it could soon be one of the last locations with a concentration of industry tenants.
Rubies ranges far and wide from this center to ancient China to modern Orientalism.