This concern is especially true in areas invaded by exotic saltcedar and Russian olive
, where foraging on cottonwoods and willows could cause ecological release that promotes the invasive species (Lesica and Miles, 2004; Mortenson et al., 2008).
A full examination of ecological effects and natural history of Russian olive
is outside the scope of this article.
There were no woods close to the field, but along one side was a deep drainage ditch lined with Russian olive
Results from data collected in sampling plots of vegetation (Smith et al., 2009) showed that exotic woody species were numerically dominant throughout the study area and formed much of the woody understory, with Russian olive
comprising 7.8% of woody plants and saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) comprising 76%.
The sight of the trashy whitetail buck stalling in the shadows of the Russian olives
gave me a jolt, like I had walked into an electric fence.
The little guy eventually sniffed his way out of site, and just as I was about to take a seat, I saw another buck slipping through some Russian olive
bushes in front of me and just to the right.
Ignoring the ladies, who were, in fact, responsible for tormenting her into a red-eyed rage, the sow chased me up a small Russian olive
tree while my cousins laughed hysterically, pelted me with dried cow pies and made ribald comments about my manhood.
"Floods used to bring seed of native plants down from upstream," Savage explains, heading into a knot of Russian olive
trees, "but we have channeled the river." Invasive species now bully out the natives--a few ancient cottonwoods stand clumped together in a thicket of Russian olives
; a few willows huddle in a swath of tamarisk.
Has: buttercup, butternut, hubbard squashes; miniature lavender iris; available next year: prickly pear cactus, Russian olive
, wild soapstone yucca, white yarrow, purple coneflower
These factors contributed to changes in vegetation along many regulated rivers, including the spread of nonnative trees and shrubs such as saltcedar (Tamarix) and Russian olive
(Elaeagnus angustifolia; Howe and Knopf, 1991; Molles, 1998; Stromberg, 2001; Shafroth et al., 2005).
Before I could shoot, he stepped behind some dense Russian olive
shrubs 17 yards away.
This gate, one of three in his garden, is made of Russian olive
branches and twigs from trees cut down along Interstate 25 in Denver when sound-barrier walls went in.