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mineral, one of three forms of titanium dioxide (TiO2; see titaniumtitanium
[from Titan], metallic chemical element; symbol Ti; at. no. 22; at. wt. 47.867; m.p. 1,675°C;; b.p. 3,260°C;; sp. gr. 4.54 at 20°C;; valence +2, +3, or +4.
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). It occurs in crystals, often in twins or rosettes, and is typically brownish red, although there are black varieties. Rutile is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, chiefly in Switzerland, Norway, Brazil, and parts of the United States.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a mineral, one of the three polymorphs of titanium dioxide (titania), TiO2. It contains iron, chromium, and sometimes vanadium, niobium, and tantalum as admixtures. The structure of rutile differs from that of the other two polymorphs of TiO2—ana tase and brookite—in the nature of the coupling of the octahedral [TiO6] groups, which are connected to each other by two common edges, forming chains parallel to the c-axis. The c-axis lies in a plane corresponding to layers of close hexagonal packing. Rutile crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It is a semiconductor and is antiferromagnetic. It has a hardness of 6–6.5 on Mohs’ scale, and its density ranges from 4,200 to 5,600 kg/m3, depending on the content of niobium and tantalum. Pure rutile is colorless, but the mineral is almost always found in various tints as a result of various admixtures.

Rutile is a common accessory mineral in rocks. In pegmatites and hydrothermal veins it occurs as large prismatic or acicular crystals. Rutile-bearing quartzites and chloritic, graphitic, and other schists have industrial value as titanium ores. Rutile is also accumulated in placers, which are especially valuable ores. Synthetic rutile is used in the jewelry industry.


Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


TiO2 A reddish-brown tetragonal mineral common in acid igneous rocks, in metamorphic rocks, and as residual grain in beach sand.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A common mineral, red-to-brown or black in color; contains 60% titanium; used in paints, as a coating on welding rods to stabilize the arc, and as an opacifier in ceramic glaze and in glass.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 10: Formulized treatment on Mulliken population and Mulliken charge of [alpha]-Mn[O.sub.2] and rutile Ti[O.sub.2] in different morphologies.
From this information it shows that the prepared Ti[O.sub.2] had no brookite phase but only anatase and rutile.
Sierra Rutile explores for and produces rutile in Sierra Leone.
The good fit between the model and analysed ages confirms the relatively high retentivity of Pb in rutile suggested by experimental data (Cherniak 2000).
The expanded facility, with a design capacity of approximately 300,000 tpa rutile and 70,000 tpa ilmenite, is scheduled for completion in early 2008.
Herman, Direct experimental observation of chemical hybridization in rutile [TiO.sub.2] using site-specific x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, submitted for publication, Phys.
Alternatives White Pigment Refractive Index Price ([cents]/lb) Rutile TiO2 2.73 95-115 Synthetic Rutile (Buff Color)(a) 2.73 68 Imported Rutile(b) - 78 Anatase TiO2 2.55 93-113 Zinc Oxide 2.02 75-80 Lithopone(c) 1.84 55-65 Calcined Kaolin Clay 1.65 20-35 Barium Sulfate 1.64 45-80 Calcium Carbonate 1.63 5-20 a Hitox Corp.
At a sales level, Base's rutile operations was the only one to deliver growth, climbing 5.5% to 94,070 tonnes.
Average price improvement for both rutile (22% increase) and zircon (28% increase) increased revenue by 5% to US$209.5m.
- return to full capacity at the synthetic rutile kiln 2 in Capel following the major maintenance outage during the March quarter, in preparation for Cataby ilmenite feed; and
A basket of zircon, ilmenite and rutile was selling for US$482 per tonne at the end of June compared to US$376 a year earlier.