rye grass

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rye grass,

short-lived perennial, leafy, tufted plant belonging to the family Poaceae (grassgrass,
any plant of the family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), an important and widely distributed group of vascular plants, having an extraordinary range of adaptation. Numbering approximately 600 genera and 9,000 species, the grasses form the climax vegetation (see ecology) in
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 family). Two species are grown in the United States—Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), the leading hay grass of Europe, and English, or perennial, rye grass (L. perenne). In parts of the United States where winters are mild, both are sowed, often mixed with other grains, for pasturage. Italian rye grass is much used for lawns in warmer regions of the United States. Perennial rye grass was probably the first of all perennial grasses to be cultivated pure for forage. Poison rye grass, or darnel (L. temulentum), reputed to be poisonous, grows in grain fields and waste places; it is thought to be the tare of the Bible. Rye grass is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliatae, order Cyperales, family Poaceae.

Rye Grass

 

any one of two species of forage grasses of the genus Lolium.

The perennial, or English, rye grass (L. perenne) is a tufted winter grass that ranges in height from 15 to 70 cm. It has leafy culms, and its glabrous leaves are shiny on the underside. The inflorescence is a spike. The spikelets are many-flowered, with the edge turned toward the axis of the spike.

The perennial rye grass is distributed almost throughout Europe and in Asia Minor, Iran, India, and North America. In Great Britain it is the dominant plant of perennial pastures. The grass grows wild in meadows, in weedy places, and along fields. In the USSR it is distributed in the European portion (including the Caucasus), in Western Siberia, and in Middle Asia (on mountain meadows). The grass grows well on moderately moist loam and clay soils that are rich in humus.

The perennial rye grass is one of the best pasture and lawn plants. It grows well after grazing or mowing, and it is eaten by all types of livestock. One hundred kilograms of hay contain 48.2 feed units and 4 kg of digestible protein. The yield of hay is 50–70 quintals per hectare.

The Italian rye grass (L. multiflorum), an annual or biennial, is a leafy plant measuring 20 to 60 cm tall. In the USSR the annual variety—Westerwolds rye grass—is cultivated. This variety, which yields a large amount of forage material, is used as a green feed and hay in mixtures with oats and such leguminous herbs as vetch and field peas. It grows well on dried, decomposed peat, clay, and loam soils. The green mass and hay are eaten by all species of livestock. One hundred kilograms of hay contain 51 feed units and 4 kg of digestible protein.

REFERENCES

Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 1. Edited by I. V. Larin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Shishkin, A. I. “Odnoletnii raigras kak vysokotravianoe rastenie.” Doklady Msesoiuznoi ordena Lenina akademii sel’skokhoziaistvennykh nauk, 1967, no. 1.

N. K. TATARINOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Considering the importance of annual ryegrass in animal husbandry, studies that relate forage abundance to biomass flows are relevant, since they contribute to devising adequate strategies for the management of this forage species.
Among treatments with infestation, mean dry mass was lower for ryegrass + millet, pine sawdust and shading cover in relation to rice husk, which resulted in higher dry mass, however, these treatments did not differ statistically from natural cover.
The first experiment consisted of monocultures of wheat, ryegrass and turnip to determine the plant population to be established in vases, based on the "Law of the Constant Final Yield" (Radosevich et al., 2007).
Ryegrass and alfalfa seeds were sown in the pots after sterilization with 30% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, washed three times with tap water, and rinsed with deionized water (DIW).
The ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiforum Lam.) was established in May 2009, with a minimum tillage and broadcast seeding, using 40 kg [ha.sup.-1] of seed.
Test plant species: Four dicotyledonous such as cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and four monocotyledonous such as Italian ryegrass, (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus- galli L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and sand fescue (Festuca megalura Nutt.) were selected as receiver test species in this research.
Keywords: Biochar; Ryegrass; Soil amendment; Water stress; Loess plateau
La presente investigacion evaluo el efecto de la especie de pasto (kikuyo [Kikuyuocloa clandestina], ryegrass [Lolium perenne L.] y alpiste forrajero [Phalaris arundinacea L.]) y el picado sobre el valor nutricional y los parametros de fermentacion de ensilajes por medio de la tecnica de microsilos.
The company suggests overseeding with perennial ryegrass. By overseeding winter lawns in early fall, they will be fully established by the time the cold weather arrives.
Featuring a blend of annual, no-till clover, brassica, wheat and ryegrass, Home Range can easily be planted without the use of heavy equipment.
The presowing ryegrass density on this site was 1,000 plants/[m.sup.2] in early April.