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see spinal columnspinal column,
bony column forming the main structural support of the skeleton of humans and other vertebrates, also known as the vertebral column or backbone. It consists of segments known as vertebrae linked by intervertebral disks and held together by ligaments.
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in terrestrial vertebrate animals and in man, one or several vertebrae that provide a strong connection between the iliac bones of the pelvis and the axial skeleton. The sacrum was formed as a result of the progressive development of the posterior extremities and their important role in locomotion. True sacral vertebrae (on which, if only in the embryo, there are sacral ribs that subsequently grow together with the transverse processes of the vertebrae) are distinguished from those that enter into the composition of the sacrum secondarily in order to reinforce it.

Present-day amphibians have one sacral vertebra, and reptiles have two (fossil forms often had more). In birds with two true sacral vertebrae, the anterior caudal, all the lumbar, and one or two of the last thoracic vertebrae are grown together to form a single bone, the synsacrum, out of ten or 12 vertebrae. In mammals, up to ten vertebrae are grown together in the sacrum; only one or two are true sacral vertebrae, and the rest are the anterior caudal vertebrae. When there is secondary disappearance of the posterior extremities (for example, in snakes and whales), the sacral region of the spine loses its function and is not differentiated.

In humans the sacrum is formed of five vertebrae, which merge in adults into a single sacral bone (os sacrum), which posteriorly closes the pelvic girdle.



A triangular bone, consisting in humans of five fused vertebrae, located below the last lumbar vertebra, above the coccyx, and between the hipbones.


1. (in man) the large wedge-shaped bone, consisting of five fused vertebrae, in the lower part of the back
2. the corresponding part in some other vertebrates
References in periodicals archive ?
Sacra with complete separation of the S1 (lumbarization) were relatively shorter (SH = 87.8[+ or -]13.2 mm; p < 0.050).
Si la respuesta de Tomas a la primera objecion le otorgaba lugar a la sacra doctrina como disciplina, entonces esta segunda objecion--coincidiendo en parte con la primera respuesta--acepta la sagrada doctrina como disciplina bajo una resignificacion con la que Tomas no estaria del todo de acuerdo.
Rasanen, Marika, Gritje Hartmann, and Earl Jeffrey Richards, eds, Relics, Identity, and Memory in Medieval Europe (Europa Sacra, 21), Turnhout, Brepols, 2016; pp.
This volume consists of two legal sources of the origin of the Sacra Infermeria Hospital of the Order of Malta, or the Order of Saint John, at La Valletta during the 17th and 18th century.
Sacra contracted the fatal virus while he was treating patients in Liberia.
"I feel great, except that I am extremely weak," Sacra said.
Sacra also had no regrets, his wife said as the doctor was evacuated to the isolation unit in a Nebraska hospital.
The focus is on delivering nutrient density through juicing, smoothies and "super foods," such as spinach, kale and chia seeds, to help support tissue and injury repair, reduce body fat, increase energy and enhance overall mental and physical health, according to Elijah Sacra, SFHW executive director.
The lower spine serves as a good basis for testing the habitual bipedal locomotion hypothesis because human lumbar vertebrae and sacra exhibit distinct features that facilitate the transmission of body weight for habitual bipedalism, says Russo.
In 2011, the South African Clinical Research Association (SACRA) conducted an online national public poll, [7] which revealed that >50% of the respondents wait for more than 6 months for the approval of an export permit for biological substances; >20% of voters indicated a waiting period of 2 months.
After obtaining permission from institutes we examined 302 dry human sacra from the Department of anatomy BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad; Government Dental College, Ahmedabad; Medical College, Vadodara and Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat, Western India.