plane

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Related to sagittal planes: coronal plane, transverse plane

plane,

in mathematics, flat surface of infinite extent but no thickness. An example of a plane, or more exactly of a bounded portion of a plane, is the surface forming one face, or side, of a cube. A plane is determined, or defined, by any of the following: (1) three points not in a straight line; (2) a straight line and a point not on the line; (3) two intersecting lines; or (4) two parallel lines. Two straight lines in space do not usually lie in the same plane. For a given plane in space, a line can either lie outside and parallel to it, intersect the plane in a single point, or lie entirely in the plane; if more than one point of a straight line lies in the plane, then the entire line must lie in the plane.

Plane

The simplest kind of two-dimensional surface, generated by the path of a straight line and defined by its length and width. The fundamental property of a plane is its shape and surface characteristics.

Plane

 

one of the fundamental concepts in geometry. In a systematic exposition of geometry, a plane is usually considered as an initial concept, which is only indirectly defined by the axioms of geometry. Its characteristic properties include the following: (1) A plane is a surface such that every line connecting any two of its points lies entirely within the surface. (2) A plane is a set of points equidistant from two given points.

REFERENCES

Efimov, N. V. Vysshaia geometriia, 5th ed. Moscow, 1971.
Hilbert, D. Osnovaniia geometrii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948. (Translated from German.)

Plane

 

a wood-shaving tool consisting of a wooden or metal stock, a cutter, and a wedge. The earliest planes, discovered in Pompeii, date to the first century A.D. Little use was made of the plane in ancient times and in the Middle Ages, the principal planing tool being the drawknife; widespread use of the plane began in the 15th and 16th centuries.

There are several types of planes, classified according to the type of planing (flat or profile planing), the stock size, and the cutter profile and angle adjustment. Jack planes are used for rough, flat planing with a rounded cutting blade. Single- and double-iron planes with chip breakers and trying planes, which are elongated and have two handles, are used for finish planing. Jointer planes and long planes, the latter distinguished by extreme length of the stock, are used for finish planing, for planing large, flat areas using a straight edge to check for the finish desired, and for fitting parts. Especially thin layers of wood are removed with smoothing planes. Toothing planes are used for making fine grooves on the surfaces of parts to be glued. Rabbets can be cut with rabbet planes and trimmed with fillister planes. Matching planes are used for making grooves, and router planes cut trapeziform slots against the grain. Irregularly shaped patterns on the faces of parts are worked with molding planes. Compass planes have a curved stock and are used in working curved (concave or convex) surfaces. Electric-powered hand planes are also used.

plane

[plān]
(electronics)
Screen of magnetic cores; planes are combined to form stacks.
(design engineering)
A tool consisting of a smooth-soled stock from the face of which extends a wide-edged cutting blade for smoothing and shaping wood.
(mathematics)
A surface such that a straight line that joins any two of its points lies entirely in that surface.
In projective geometry, a triple of sets (P, L, I) where P denotes the set of points, L the set of lines, and I the incidence relation on points and lines, such that (1) P and L are disjoint sets, (2) the union of P and L is nonnull, and (3) I is a subset of P × L, the cartesian product of P and L.

plane

plane, 1
1. A tool for smoothing wood surfaces; consists of a smooth soleplate, from the under-side of which projects slightly the cutting edge of an inclined blade; there is an aperture in front of the blade for the shavings to escape.
2. A surface, any section through which by a like surface is a straight line.
3. Of a column, the surface of a longitudinal section through the axis of the column.

plane

1
1. Maths a flat surface in which a straight line joining any two of its points lies entirely on that surface
2. 
a. short for aeroplane
b. a wing or supporting surface of an aircraft or hydroplane
3. Maths (of a curve, figure, etc.) lying entirely in one plane

plane

2
1. a tool with an adjustable sharpened steel blade set obliquely in a wooden or iron body, for levelling or smoothing timber surfaces, cutting mouldings or grooves, etc.
2. a flat tool, usually metal, for smoothing the surface of clay or plaster in a mould
References in periodicals archive ?
Anteroposterior (a) and craniocaudal (b) dimensions of the lacrimal gland on sagittal plane; craniocaudal (c) and transverse (d) dimensions of the lacrimal gland on coronal plane; anteroposterior (e) and transverse (f) dimensions of the lacrimal gland on axial plane.
1.27[degrees] [+ or -] 0.32[degrees], t = −4.166, P <0.001; the potential error of IM in males in sagittal plane: 1.40[degrees] [+ or -] 0.42[degrees] vs.
Tibial tunnel in the sagittal plane is distant from the anterior edge of tibial plateau by 29.69% of the total anteroposterior plateau diameter.
Table 1: Angular values of coronal and sagittal plane deformities preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up period.
If the obturator is anterior to the lesion on the sagittal plane, the operator would want to obtain most samples with the aperture directed toward the patient's chest wall, or centered at the 12 o'clock position (Figure 8) with samples between the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock positions (clockwise).
Postural sway in frontal and sagittal plane was measured by a Kistler-9386AA force platform.
All 100 players underwent a Biodex dynamic proprioception test (unilateral dynamic limits of stability) that measured their proprioception in the frontal and sagittal planes. The test lasted 60 seconds per leg (adapted from Finn's [12] protocol).
Two mutually perpendicular planes of symmetry run along the oral-aboral axis: the sagittal plane in which the flattened stomodaeum lies, and the tentacular plane passing through the two tentacle pouches (Fig.
In light of prior findings on passive ankle stretching [20-23] as well as our experience in upper-limb rehabilitation in stroke [26-33], we hypothesized that after 6 wk of anklebot training, the paretic PAS would change in the trained sagittal plane, i.e., DF-PF, but not in the untrained frontal plane, i.e., INV-EV.
The optimized combination of QRS-vector indicators for discrimination between healthy controls and patients with anterior STEMI includes amplitude of the maximal vector in the frontal and sagittal plane, angle a of the maximal vector in the sagittal plane and the area of the loop in the frontal plane.
The following sequences were done; T1W TSE(TE = 18, TR = 520) in axial and sagittal planes, T2W TSE(TE = 104, TR = 4080) in axial plane, STIR(TI = 130, TR = 5000) in sagittal plane, T2W TSE(TE = 57, TR = 4470) in sagittal plane with fat saturation and post gadolinium T1W TSE(TE = 18, TR = 520) in axial and sagittal planes, using Siemens Sonata 1.5 T MRI scanner (Erlangen, Germany).
Thus, Bradley states that "tears running oblique [ly] to the coronal and sagittal planes may well be visualized only by a notch on the articular surface." (4) Even without this notch, a normal-appearing MR may be inconclusive.