Sailing Vessel


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

Sailing Vessel

 

a vessel propelled by sails that catch the wind. Depending on its size, a sailing vessel may have from one to seven masts. Sailing craft are also distinguished according to the type of rig. A sailing vessel’s total sail area and the center of effort of its sails (the point acted upon by the resultant of the wind forces) are important determinants of the vessel’s sailing qualities and maneuverability. Sailing vessels are guided by the combined action of rudder and sails, which are used to effect changes in course and speed.

The history of the sailing ship goes back more than 5,000 years. In ancient Egypt, Phoenicia, China, Greece, and Rome, sails were used to provide auxiliary power on oar-driven military and transport vessels. Ships using sails as the principal means of propulsion appeared in the Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries between the tenth and 13th centuries. Drakes, nefs, carracks, and caravels are examples of such early sailing ships. In ancient Rus’, two shipbuilding regions formed between the ninth and 14th centuries: in the north, around the White Sea and Novgorod, and in the south, Kiev. The Eastern Slavs voyaged aboard sailing vessels called lod’i, kochi, and karabasy on the White, Barents, Baltic, and Black seas. They reached Tsar’grad (Constantinople) and sailed into the Mediterranean.

The development of the art of navigation, improvements in rigging and sails, and advances in shipbuilding and sail-handling techniques contributed to the great geographical discoveries and the expansion of world trade. In the 16th and 17th centuries the principal shipbuilding centers shifted from the Mediterranean to the North Sea countries—Holland and England. By the early 18th century, sailing ships had replaced oar-driven vessels everywhere. Merchant vessels with cargo capacities of several hundred tons and 100-gun battleships of the line with crews of approximately 800 men were built during the time of Peter I. The sailing fleet reached the height of its development by the mid-19th century, when it constituted the nucleus of merchant, fishing, and naval fleets. Thus, there were merchantmen with crews of 100, cargo capacities in excess of 5,000 tons, and gross tonnages of more than 1,500 registered tons. Clippers, the fastest sailing ships, exceeded speeds of 18 knots (approximately 33 km/hour).

Sailing ships lost their importance as the principal means of transport in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the use of steamships and diesel-powered vessels became general. They are now used primarily for yacht and dinghy racing, for carrying tourists, and for training.

E. G. LOGVINOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
I AM a qualified sailing master with over 40 years' experience sailing mainly traditional sailing vessels in and out of many ports around the United Kingdom, including Barry Waterfront.
This traditional sailing vessel flying Pakistani national flag will also augment naval projection.
This trend, however, was brief and within less than half a century wages and profits were again in a state of decline similar to that which had been evident towards the end of the sailing vessel era.
"By introducing such students into the cooperative minisociety required to crew a sailing vessel where they must cooperate, they learn outlooks and tools that will help.
In the lead-up to the anniversary, the committee decided the same day to hold a symposium April 19 this year in the city of Usuki in the southwestern Japan prefecture, where the first Dutch sailing vessel to reach Japan is believed to have docked, committee members said.
Like the figurehead of an old sailing vessel, Old Woman, 1991, consisted of a head and torso mounted at a gentle angle from the wall.
On Friday, Commander Tomy, who is representing India in the GGR 2018 on an indigenously built sailing vessel 'Thuriya', suffered a back injury after the yacht was dismasted due to extremely rough weather and sea condition in the Indian Ocean.
The indigenously-built INSV Tarini is a 56-foot sailing vessel, which was inducted in the Indian Navy earlier this year, and showcases the 'Make in India'initiative.
Summary: INSV Tarini, a 55-foot sailing vessel built indigenously and inducted in to Indian Navy in February this year, has already sailed around 8,000 nautical miles
Due to strong winds being forecast for today, the Coastguard called the RNLI, whose crew members towed the dingy back to the mother ship - a 32m,128 tonne sailing vessel.
Officials say a Coast Guard cutter intercepted a Panamanian flagged sailing vessel southeast of Nicaragua on Sept.
The ageing, three-masted, iron hulled sailing vessel was manned by a Norwegian crew of 26 under the command of Captain Olav Larsen.