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in the Soviet system of government, the organized promotion of leading workers and peasants to positions of leadership in state, economic, cooperative, trade-union, and other administrative and ruling bodies. On the eve of the October Revolution and in the first years of Soviet power, Lenin raised the question of involving the workers in state administration. This task was put on a practical basis in the resolutions of the Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth Party Congresses, as well as the Decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) of Mar. 7, 1927, “On the Tasks of the Party in Promoting Workers and Peasants to the State Administrative Bodies.”

The promotion policy directed by the Communist Party played a major role in breaking up the old state system and creating the new Soviet state organization as well as in forming the new Soviet intelligentsia and strengthening the dictatorship of the proletariat. The selection of persons to be promoted was carried out through the Party and trade unions with the participation of broad masses of the working people. Qualified workers and peasants were promoted to leadership positions. They lacked specialized education but had high class consciousness and experience in life, and they had demonstrated organizational abilities in socialist construction. The promotion policy was most highly developed in the period of building the economic foundation of socialism in the USSR (1921-32). Under the promotion system, by the end of the First Five-Year Plan the leadership cadres of the nation had been increased by 800,000-900,000 persons. The promotion policy began to decline as a system in the early 1930’s. It was gradually replaced by the planned training of specialists in various Soviet secondary and advanced educational institutions.


Lenin, V. I. “Ocherednye zadachi Sovetskoi vlasti.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo rabochikh i partiinaia nedelia.” Ibid., vol. 39.
Sostav Rukovodiashchikh rabotnikov i spetsialistov Soiuza SSR, SSR. Moscow, 1936. Pages 392, 457.
Rabochii klass v upravlenii gosudarstvom (1926-1937 gg.). Moscow,. 1968.
Sovetskaia intelligentsiia (Istoriia formiroaniia i rosta, 1917-1965 gg.). Moscow, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
This experimental approach also complements prior sales promotion research based primarily on scanner data (see Blattberg and Neslin 1990).
Any businesses planning to run a sales promotion in the UAE, in the nature of those outlined above, should consider the regulatory regime relating to such promotions and seek to obtain the requisite permit.
The Supreme Court (SC) has ruled that it is the Inter-Agency Committee-Tobacco (IAC-Tobacco) and not the Department of Health (DOH) that has the power to regulate all sales promotions in the tobacco industry, like those put up by cigarette manufacturers.
Another assumption of the present research is that the type of sales promotion (monetary or nonmonetary) influences the perceived value of the product offered.
After reading the sales promotion information and viewing the photographs, participants completed a 13-item impulse buying intention (IBI) measure.
Taking the above mentioned view of impulse purchases and types of sales promotion.
The sales promotion is valid only on HomeSteps[R] homes sold to owner-occupants.
Sapporo Holdings said that the cost cuts were made possible by focusing advertisement and sales promotion on the company's mainstay products, and a reduction in production costs.
The study is aimed at identifying the role of sales promotion in the retail trade in the province of sindh with special reference to Hyderabad to describe the types of sales promotion done by the retailers of the area understudy, as the conventional retailers of this area can give due consideration to this vital aspect of marketing to induce customers to purchase specific commodity, create the image of retail outlets and increase the sale of the products offered.
Conventional electronic display systems used for sales promotion at supermarkets and other stores mainly show the same content repeatedly.
But the draft Sales Promotion Regulation, which is unpopular with the member states, has not made any progress in Council since 2002 in spite of a series of compromise proposals under successive presidencies.
A spokesman for Edgbaston company Wyatt said: 'Our remit covers brand management, dealer and consumer-based sales promotion campaigns.