None of strains fermented rhamnose, lactose, trehalose, raffinose, dulcitol or salicin
. The results were variable with some of the carbohydrates: 16 strains fermented arabinose, four fermented maltose and nine fermented mannitol.
Haplotypes were tested by API 50CHB strips (BioMerieux, Inc., France) for utilization of the following substrates: glycerol, erythritol, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, ribose, D-xylose, L-xylose, Adonitol, B-methyl xyloside, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, L-sorbose, rhamnose, dulcitol, inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, L-methyl-D-mannoside, D-methyl-D-glucoside, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, aesculin, salicin
, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, Trehalose, gentiobiose, melibiose, raffinose, melezitose, starch, glycogen, inulin, D-turanose, D-tagatose, D-fucose, L-fucose, D-lyxose, D-arabitol, L-arabitol, xylitol, gluconate, and 2,5-ketogluconate.
For secondary identification of the isolates to the species level, different biochemical tests (oxidation fermentation test, Mannitol and salicin
sugar fermentation, aesculin hydrolysis, and CAMP test) were done based on the genus ofbacteria to be identified .
On the contrary, salicin
, also a bitter taste receptor agonist, but a natural one (not identified as garvisha by the body), had opposite effects to those elicited by the previously mentioned synthetic agonists: salicin
increased food ingestion (ayur-bitter is rucikara and increases appetite ) and accelerated gastric emptying .
* White Willow Bark (Salix alba, Salix spp.) contains salicin
, a chemical similar to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
Herbal medicine has made many contributions to commercial drug preparations manufactured today including ephedrine from Ephedra sinica, digitoxin from Digitalis purpurea, salicin
(the source of aspirin) from Salix alba and reserpine from Rauwolfia serpentina.
For characterization of pure isolates upto species level, biochemical tests viz., Gram staining, shape, oxidation, catalase, motility, voges-proskauer, indole production, nitrate reduction, urease, citrate utilization, growth in 5% NaCl, growth on DNase agar, MacConkey agar, blood agar, ampicillin (12.5 ul/litre) blood agar and fermentation of sugars (L-arabinose, glucose, lactose, maltose, mannose, raffinose, salicin
, D-sorbitol, starch, mannitol, rhamnose and sucrose) were performed according to standards procedures (Holt, 1986).
Before we got pain relief from aspirin, for example, its key ingredient salicin
could be extracted by boiling willow bark.
Willow is rich in salicin
, the basis of modern aspirin, which was first sold in 1899.
In fact, the original aspirin came from the inner back of willows, which contains salicin
. We have heard some folks say that smoking the willow bark in their mixes also provides some pain-relieving qualities.
Semi-industrial isolation of salicin
and amygdalin from plant extracts using slow rotary counter-current chromatography.