saliva

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saliva

the secretion of salivary glands, consisting of a clear usually slightly acid aqueous fluid of variable composition. It moistens the oral cavity, prepares food for swallowing, and initiates the process of digestion

Saliva

 

the clear, viscid secretion of the salivary glands, with a weakly acid or weakly alkaline reaction (pH 5.6–7.6). A human adult secretes about 1.5 liters of saliva a day, and large farm animals from 40–60 to 120 liters. The composition and quantity of the saliva vary according to the consistency and chemical composition of the substances taken into the mouth and the organism’s functional condition.

Saliva contains 98.5–99.5 percent water, and dissolved anions of chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, thiocyanates, iodides, bromides, fluorides, and sulfates and the cations Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. It also contains the trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Li, Zn, and others and organic matter, including protein and its fractions (albumin, globulins), amino acids, and mucin. In addition, it contains the enzymes amylase, lactase, ly-sozyme, kallikrein, and parotin, as well as cholesterol, glucose, lactic acid, and vitamins C, B1, B12, H, and K. Saliva helps dissolve the food, thus facilitating the perception of taste and the protection of the teeth against caries. It coats the alimentary bolus, thereby enabling the food to pass easily through the esophagus into the stomach; it also affects the secretory and motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract.

The level of development, habitat, and nature of the food consumed determine the content of certain constituents in the saliva of some animals. In snakes, for example, the saliva contains toxins and serves as a means of defense and attack. In other animals, including annelid worms and some birds, the secretions of the salivary glands are rich in the sticky substances needed to glue together the materials used in building nests. The saliva of bloodsucking animals, such as leeches and mosquitoes, usually contains anticoagulants, for example, hirudin in leeches. Carnivorous animals that feed on live prey may secrete paralyzing toxins in the saliva. Many insects, some mol-lusks (for example, Helix), and vertebrates secrete salivary car-bohydrases. The saliva of some predatory cephalopods contains proteases as well as toxins and mucus.

REFERENCE

Fiziologiia pishchevareniia. Leningrad, 1974(Rukovodstvo po fiziologii.)

V. D. SUKHODOLO

saliva

[sə′lī·və]
(physiology)
The opalescent, tasteless secretions of the oral glands.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Anopheles mosquito's salivary gland is made up of three lobes of saliva-producing cells.
TGF-[alpha] is a 50 amino acid mitogenic polypeptide that has been detected from a variety of exocrine glands of body including lacrimal glands, pancreas and in the striated ducts of both human submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (Yasui et al., 1992; Mogi et al., 1995; Humprey-Beher et al., 1994; Chiang et al., 2001; Ogbureke et al., 1995; Dernyk, 1988).
The ICCR salivary glands cancer data set is specific to resection specimens and some biopsies of malignant neoplasms and associated carcinoma in situ arising from the major salivary glands.
Malignant tumours comprise 15-30% of all parotid tumours, 40% of submandibular gland tumours, 70-90% of sublingual and over 50% of minor salivary gland tumours.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a resistance to insulin is developed.4 A common oral problem associated with DM is xerostomia, 5-8 whose intensity is significantly correlated with salivary level of glucose, 5 increased infections, salivary dysfunction, dental caries 6-8 and lichenoid reaction caused by certain anti-diabetic drugs 9 in DM patients.
On the other hand, Chicharo (1994); Segora and collaborators (1996) and Amir Sassan and collaborators (2011) have made efforts to estimate salivary lactate and electrolytes including Chloride Ions, Sodium, Potassium and salivary IgA subsequent to various exercise protocols.
Salivary glands can be damaged by an autoimmune condition known as Sjogren's syndrome or by radiation therapy for cancer.
Takashi Tsuji, of the RIKEN Center for Bio-systems Dynamics Research, said "We hope that these experiments will soon find their way into the clinic and help patients suffering from a variety of disorders." Citation: Junichi Tanaka et al., Generation of of thotopically functional salivary gland from embryonic stem cells.
Hicksand and Flaitz stated that epithelial salivary gland neoplasms are rare both in adults and children, accounting for <3% of all head and neck tumors.
Although salivary glands of rodents and humans exhibit certain similarities, butvary to some extent in their structure, location and development.
Salivary [alpha]-amylase is a peptide with sympathetic activity and so affects the autonomic nervous system.
The data of 57 already diagnosed cases of salivary gland tumors both benign and malignant were taken.