In order to evaluate consistency and dependency of measured and simulated data, sample correlation coefficient (r) is determined as follows:

2) Sample correlation coefficient (r) between measured and simulated energy is around 0.

where r is the sample correlation coefficient between R and I.

From (7) and (9), it is observed that the covariance matrices V([absolute value of S]) and V([phi]) rely on the sample correlation coefficient r between R and I.

rec] is used to describe the complex-valued variable S in terms of its standard uncertainties u(R) and u(I) for R and I and the

sample correlation coefficient r between R and I in a rectangular coordinate,

Generally, the measurement error arises on account of the lack of construct validity and attenuates the magnitude of a

sample correlation coefficient.

Again, this result is consistent with the increased variability of the

sample correlation coefficient for small sample sizes.

A

sample correlation coefficient of 1 means the parameters are directly correlated and a coefficient of -1 indicates an inverse relationship.

1) Pearson's

sample correlation coefficient, let's denote it by [r.

Odeh [60] tabulated, to 5D, quantiles x of the

sample correlation coefficient, where F(x) = p for p = 0.

The positive correlation between X and Y is measured by the

sample correlation coefficient (r).

This study examined bias in the

sample correlation coefficient, r, and its correction by unbiased estimators.