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sampler,sample piece of needlework or embroidery, of silk, cotton, or worsted, for the preservation of some pattern or as an example of the ability of a child or a beginner. In museums and private collections there are samplers dating from as early as 1643. It was long the custom for each young girl to work her own sampler as soon as her needlework showed a proper degree of skill. Certain features of the sampler remained constant—the name of the maker, the date, the alphabet, texts from Scripture, proverbs or bits of verse, and a conventional border framing the whole.
a device for obtaining samples from bulk, semi-liquid, and liquid materials for testing purposes. A widely used sampler is a tube with a tapered end and a lengthwise slot that permits sampling of all the layers of a material as the sampler is rotated. Subsurface samplers are used to sample oil, water, and gas from boreholes; they preserve the pressure of the sample removed from a given depth. Circulating and nonrinsing subsurface samplers feature slow sampling into a piston intake chamber. Valves may be actuated by inertial devices, timing mechanisms, hydraulic relays, and power devices.
In the USSR, subsurface samplers are designed for average (up to 30 meganewtons/m2) and high (up to 100 mega-newtons/m2) pressures at operating temperatures up to 70° and 250°C, respectively. The intake chamber capacity is approximately 300 cm3, and the weight of the device is 4–10 kg.
REFERENCEPribory i apparatura dlia issledovaniia nefti i gaza v plastovykh usloviiakh. Moscow, 1965.
B. V. DEGTIAREV