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the primary institution that provides sanatorium and health resort treatment. There are sanatoriums for adults, children, and teen-agers, as well as for parents and their children. In the USSR, tuberculosis sanatoriums and children’s sanatoriums are administered by public health agencies; all others are administered by trade unions.
The specialization of a health resort sanatorium depends on the available therapeutic facilities. Nonhealth-resort, that is, local, sanatoriums have been established for convalescents, for whom travel to a distant health resort after discharge from a hospital, or a sharp change in climate, might be harmful. Sanatoriums may specialize in treating one type of disease or two or more.
In the USSR and other socialist countries, passes to sanatoriums are available at full cost, free of charge, or with a discount paid for by social insurance. Kolkhoz and interkolkhoz sanatoriums are built and maintained by kolkhozes.
The distinctive characteristics of sanatorium buildings emerged in the last decade of the 19th century. During the first decades of the 20th century, the principles for the functional planning of sanatorium buildings and their technical equipment were worked out. Sanatorium buildings in the USSR have special areas for sleeping, giving treatments, eating, and recreation. There are also housekeeping and administration areas. The architectural planning of sanatoriums varies. Thus, in centralized sanatoriums all facilities are located in one building, in block sanatoriums different facilities are located in separate wings connected by heated passages, and in pavilion sanatoriums different facilities are located in separate buildings.
Sanatorium architecture is characterized by a maximum interrelationship with the surrounding landscape. Many are surrounded by parks. A modern type of health facility is actually a complex of sanatoriums that are completely or partially centralized, with the exception of dining rooms, which are located in each sanatorium of the complex; such architectural planning significantly increases total sanatorium capacity.
A. T. POLIANSKII