sandstone


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sandstone,

sedimentary rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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 formed by the cementing together of grains of sand. The usual cementing material in sandstone is calcium carbonate, iron oxides, or silica, and the hardness of sandstone varies according to the character of the cementing material; quartz sandstones cemented with quartz are the hardest. Sandstones are commonly gray, buff, red, or brown although green and some other colors are also found. Green sandstones often contain, in addition to sand and glauconite, fossil shells and iron oxides; those that break apart easily are known as greensands and are sometimes used to replenish depleted potash in soils. Sandstones are widely used in construction and industry. Varieties of sandstone include arkose, which contains feldspar and resembles granitegranite,
coarse-grained igneous rock of even texture and light color, composed chiefly of quartz and feldspars. It usually contains small quantities of mica or hornblende, and minor accessory minerals may be present.
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, and graywacke, a gray or sometimes greenish or black rock composed of quartz and fledspar with numerous fragments of other rocks, such as shale, slate, quartzite, granite, and basalt. Sandstone may be crushed to the form of loose sand grains, which can then be put to the same industrial uses as sand. See brownstonebrownstone,
red to brown variety of sandstone. Its unusual color is caused in some instances by the presence of red iron oxide which acts as a cement, binding the sand grains together.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

sandstone

Sedimentary rock that is composed of sand-sized grains naturally cemented by mineral materials. See also: Stone
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sandstone

 

a sedimentary rock composed of sand grains cemented by clay, carbonate, siliceous, or other material. Like sand, sandstones are divided into small-grain (0.1–0.25 mm), medium-grain (0.25–0.5 mm), and large-grain (0.5 mm) varieties according to the predominant particle size. They are also divided mineralogically into monomineral and polymineral quartz sandstones, arkosic sandstones, and graywackes.

The density of sandstone is 2,250–2,670 kg per cu m; its porosity is 0.69–6.70 percent, and its water absorption, 0.63–6.0 percent. Sandstone with siliceous and carbonate cementing material has the best physicomechanical properties, and sandstone with clay cement, the poorest. The refractoriness of sandstone also differs, with the greatest heat resistance (up to 1,700°C) characteristic for pure quartz sandstone with siliceous cement. Sandstone is used in construction as wall and facing material and in rubble work. It is also used to make gravel for road building and concrete-making. Quartz sandstone with a SiO2 content of more than 95 percent is used in the production of Dinas brick, as a flux in smelting copper and nickel, and in manufacturing glass.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sandstone

[′san‚stōn]
(petrology)
A detrital sedimentary rock consisting of individual grains of sand-size particles 0.06 to 2 millimeters in diameter either set in a fine-grained matrix (silt or clay) or bonded by chemical cement.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sandstone

Sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized grains, naturally cemented by mineral materials. In most sandstone used for building, quartz grains predominate; often used for decorative elements in buildings because it is easy to carve.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sandstone

any of a group of common sedimentary rocks consisting of sand grains consolidated with such materials as quartz, haematite, and clay minerals: used widely in building
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The well is targeting oil in the Middle-Lower Jurassic Fangst and Bat Groups on the western Trondelag Platform with secondary prospectivity in Upper Triassic fluvial channel sandstones. The well is testing a new migration pathway from the Halten Terrace across the Bremstein Fault Zone on to the Trondelag Platform.
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Barbara says it was at Sandstone that she found her real purpose in life, leading people into a new lifestyle of self-discovery and allowing a person's mind, body, and sexuality to come together with a new sense of liberation; Barbara's goal was to understand society and set it free.
Thin sections (2.8 x 4.8 cm) were made for undisturbed samples of the iron sandstone layers (8 sections for Kasangulu, 6 for Menkao) and of the over- and underlying sediments (10 sections for Kasangulu, 7 for Menkao).
Figure 2(b) and (c) show that the elastic modulus of sandstone increases slowly with temperature at first and then decreases rapidly.
The textural studies of the cement in the sandstone samples were performed on polished blocks and fractured surfaces, coated with gold on FEI Quanta 200F Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and operated under 15-20 kV.The analyses were performed at the State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resource and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum (Beijing).
Such a mafia would not in the past allow any outsider take part in the bidding through different coercive means so as to get hold of sandstone sites for commercial purposes as against peanuts.
[5] conducted seepage tests on the granite to describe the permeability evolution during the progressive failure process, which replicated the complex hydromechanical coupled behavior of low porous rocks, and Wang and Xu [6] carried out the permeability tests on limestone and sandstone during the course of deformation and failure; accordingly, the permeability evolution curves were divided into four phases of elastic compression phase, compression stability stage, dramatic increase phase of permeability, and postpeak phase, which is important for research on the permeability variation under multiphysical coupling conditions.
To figure out the effects of chemical solution on the shear behavior of sandstone, Feucht and Logan [23] carried out a test which dealt sandstone samples with three chemistry solutions (NaCl, Ca[Cl.sub.2], and [Na.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]) and monitored samples' friction coefficient and strength.
New Zealand-based SBS Bank has partnered with Sandstone Technology for a new digital banking platform.
This is particularly true when such structures are built in mudstone and sandstone, which are two most widely distributed rock types encountered in underground mines.
The Sandstone Way, from Berwick to Hexham, is the first mapped, waymarked and promoted long distance mountain bike ride in the UK.