sarcoma


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

sarcoma

(särkō`mə), highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin. See cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
..... Click the link for more information.
; neoplasmneoplasm
or tumor,
tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Sarcoma

 

a malignant tumor that consists of connective tissue. Mesenchymomas, which are sarcomas made up of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyma), are distinguished from sarcomas made up of mature tissues of mesenchymal origin, for example, bone sarcomas (osteosarcomas), cartilaginous sarcomas (chondrosarcomas), vascular sarcomas (angiosarcomas), hematopoietic sarcomas (reticulosarcomas), muscular sarcomas (leiomyosarcomas, rhabdosarcomas), and sarcomas of skeletal nerve tissue (gliosarcomas).

Sarcomas constitute about 10 percent of all malignant tumors; they occur relatively more often in some African and Asian countries. The most common sarcomas are bone tumors and tumors of soft tissues, including muscular, vascular, and nerve tissues. Sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs occur less frequently. Histomorphologically, there are round-cell, polymorphocellular (sometimes giant-cell), and spindle-cell sarcomas, all of which differ in the shape and size of the cells, and fibrosarcomas, in which fibrous elements predominate over cellular elements.

All malignant tumors are characterized by growing into and destroying surrounding tissues; this property is especially pronounced in sarcomas. The early stages of cancers differ from the early stages of sarcomas; cancers metastasize to the nearest lymph nodes, while sarcomas usually spread by way of the bloodstream and frequently metastasize to remote organs.

The principles and methods of diagnosis, preventive measures, and treatment of sarcomas are the same as those used for other malignant tumors.

REFERENCE

Klinicheskaia onkologiia. Edited by N. N. Blokhin and B. E. Peterson, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1971.

L. M. SHABAD

sarcoma

[sär′kō·mə]
(medicine)
A malignant tumor arising in connective tissue and composed principally of anaplastic cells that resemble those of supportive tissues.

sarcoma

Pathol a usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue
References in periodicals archive ?
FDCS is an intermediate grade sarcoma derived from follicular dendritic cells (FDC).
The importance of correctly diagnosing MIFS is that it can be mistaken for either an inflammatory process or another malignant tumor such as Hodgkin lymphoma or a more aggressive sarcoma such as myxofibrosarcoma.
CytRx Corporation, a biopharmaceutical research and development company specializing in oncology, today announced that results from its on-going Phase 1b/2 trial of aldoxorubicin in combination with ifosfamide/mesna in patients with advanced sarcomas will be presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2016 Congress being held in Copenhagen, Denmark, from October 7-11, 2016.
Although her myeloid sarcoma responded to proton beam radiotherapy, the patient died from her disease approximately 8 months after her initial presentation.
Sarcoma is not easily identified and diagnosed but if it is found early it is a curable disease.
In mammals, sarcoma developing in association with a metallic orthopedic implant is an uncommon but well-recognized complication.
Myeloid sarcoma presents as a relatively uniform population of immature cells, with three levels of differentiation that are typically recognized: blastic, immature, and differentiated.
The synovial sarcoma is a variety of neoplastic lesion that was initially found around joints and hence named synovial sarcoma.
In conjunction with the acceptance, the company plans to initiate a multi-centre phase 2 study in adults and a multi-center phase 1 study in children to evaluate tazemetostat in patients with relapsed or refractory INI1-negative tumors or synovial sarcoma in the second half of 2015.
Chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in chronic granulocytic sarcoma of prostate is very rare (9-12) and more so association with benign hyperplasia of prostate is not reported in the literature so far.
The four variants of Kaposi's sarcoma can have different clinical presentations.