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scalar,quantity or number possessing only sign and magnitude, e.g., the real numbers (see numbernumber,
entity describing the magnitude or position of a mathematical object or extensions of these concepts. The Natural Numbers
Cardinal numbers describe the size of a collection of objects; two such collections have the same (cardinal) number of objects if their
..... Click the link for more information. ), in contrast to vectorsvector,
quantity having both magnitude and direction; it may be represented by a directed line segment. Many physical quantities are vectors, e.g., force, velocity, and momentum.
..... Click the link for more information. and tensorstensor,
in mathematics, quantity that depends linearly on several vector variables and that varies covariantly with respect to some variables and contravariantly with respect to others when the coordinate axes are rotated (see Cartesian coordinates).
..... Click the link for more information. ; scalars obey the rules of elementary algebra. Many physical quantities have scalar values, e.g., length, area, mass, energy, and electric charge. Such quantities as velocity, force, momentum, and spin are vectors and follow different algebraic rules.
a quantity such that each of its values can be expressed by a single (real) number. Examples of scalars include length, area, time, mass, density, temperature, and work. The term “scalar” is used—sometimes simply as a synonym for “number”—in vector analysis, where a scalar is distinguished from a vector.
See also superscalar.