In some books and articles, the authors describe the magnetostatic field of magnetized bodies with the help of the scalar potential
2] is the pure Euclidean Laplacian, G is the universal gravitational constant and f is the gravitational scalar potential
Hence, the inflationary scalar potential
needs symmetries to protect it from dangerous quantum corrections.
In conventional EEG the scalar potential
, obtained from current measurements, is recorded, and not the electric field.
Here, the Neumann relation is obtained by calculating the scalar potential
using Coulomb's law at the surface of the i-th wire caused by the charge in the j-th wire.
We can retain a simple integral equation formulation in scalar potential
for the region outside the rail, where magnetic fields are irrotational.
At 1904, Edmund Whittaker , based on a well known formula for the integral solutions of wave equations by his former student Harry Bateman , discovered that the overall electromagnetic field produced by a moving electron in retarded coordinates, can be analyzed in three scalar potential
This approach includes using of corresponding Green's function for electric scalar potential
and point matching method (PMM)  for matching values of potential and boundary condition for normal components of the electric field.
r] are the conductivity and relative permittivity of the material and [phi] is the electric scalar potential
With a similar procedure, the term relative to the scalar potential
is approximated by applying the vector Green's identity and the properties of test functions:
mu]-] = ([PSI] / c, -D) 4-potential of gravitational field which is described through scalar potential
f and vector potential D of this field,
c] together with scalar electric potential combined with the use of magnetic scalar potential
in the non-conducting area (Ciric, 2007).